The term Network Security and Information Security are used often inter â€“changeably. Network Security is generally taken as providing protection at the boundaries of an organization by keeping out intruder (or hackers). Information Security however, explicitly focuses on protecting data resources from malware (or malicious computer software) attacks or simple mistake by people within an organization by use of data loss prevention (DLP) techniques. One the techniques are to compartmentalized large network with internal boundaries. Employees have to cross these boundaries and be authenticated when attempting to access protected information. Network Security starts from authenticating the user, commonly by with a user name and a password. Since this requires that just one thing besides user name i.e. the password which is something youÂ
know, this is sometimes term one factor authentication. With two factor authentications something you have is also used (e.g. security token or dongle, an Automated Teller Machine (ATM) , or your mobile phone). Or with three factor authentications something you are is also used(e.g. a finger print or a retinal scan)., Once authenticated, a firewall enforces access policies such as; what services are allowed to be access by the network users or clients. Though effective to prevent unauthorized access, this component may fail to check potentially content such as; computer worm or Trojan horses being transmitted over the network. Network Security has an intrusions prevention system (IPS) which helps to detect and inhibit the action of such malware . Any anomaly based intrusions detection system(IDS) may also monitor the network and traffic for unexpected (i.e. suspicious ) contents or behaviors and other anomalies to protect resources from denial of service(DOS) attacks or an employees accessing files, virus attacks, rogue applets, stealing, credit card theft ,theft of identity, and information piracy. Individual event occurring on the network may be logged for audit purposes and for later high level analysis.Â
Communications between two host using networks could be encrypted to maintain privacy.Â
The Honey pot which consist of a computer data or a network act as Surveillances or early warning tools. Techniques used by the attackers (or hackers) that attempt to compromise the decoys resources are studied during and after an attack to keep an eye on the new exploitations techniques. Such analysis could be the actual network being protected by the honey pot. Network Security are often times called computer security, which in this aspect is termed as controlling access to hard ware, software and data of a computerized system or machine. A large measure of computer security is simply keeping the computer systems information secure. In broader terms, computer security (or Network security) can beÂ
thought as the protection of computer and its resources against accidental or intentional disclosure of confidential data, unlawful modification of data or programs, the destruction of data, software or hardware. It includes the denial of the use of ones computer system or facilities for criminal purposes or activities including; computer or network related fraud and blackmail. Network security involves the elimination of weaknesses or vulnerabilities that might be exploited to cause loss or harm of a particular information on a computer system.Â
Network Security revolves round three key principles, theseÂ
principles are : confidentiality, integrity, availability , and sometimesÂ
non-repudiation depending on the applications and context.
1. Confidentiality: this is concern with preventing an unauthorizedÂ
disclosure of sensitive information on the network. This disclosure could be intentional such as breaking a cipher(or an encrypted text) and reading the information or it could be unintentional due to careless or incompetence of individual of user handling the information.
2.Integrity: this comprises of three goals; these three goals are:Â
(a) Prevention of a modified information by unauthorized users.
(b) Prevention of an unauthorized or intentional modification ofÂ
information by authorized uses.
(c) Prevention of the internal and external consistency. The InternalÂ
consistency ensures that the internal data is consistent, while theÂ
external consistency ensures that the data stored in the database isÂ
consistent with the real world.
Availability: this assures that a system authorized user that have timely and interrupted access to an information into system and to the network.
Non Repudiation: this assures that a sender or network user can not deny having sent a particular message. These three principles of Network security above must to evolved from years of practice andÂ
experimentation making up network history. Security management for network is different for all kind of situation, while large businesses will require high maintenance and advance software and hard ware to prevent malicious attacks from hacking and spamming. For a small home or an office would only require also basic security.
In the remaining part of this chapter, the following were discussed:
Historical background of the study
Problem of the study
Objective of the study
Significance of the study
Scope of the study
Limitation of the study
In chapter two (2), the related literatures done by some Researchers were reviewed, in chapter three (3), the methodology and design of the system were reviewed, in chapter four(4), the system implementation, documentation and testing were also discussed, and lastly in chapter five(5), a brief write-up on the summary conclusion and recommendation of the study were given.
1.2HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDYÂ
Over the past several years, when mainframe computers andÂ
minicomputers were purchased, they came with many built-in-security features. Although there were breaches of security, the number of authorized users were generally small in number sign-on IDâ€™s and password were necessary to use the computer system, and the amount and type of usage was logged. Security information across a network sourcehad it root in the late 1960s when network only existed in the sense of huge mainframe and multiple networked terminals. Hundreds of thousand and millions of dumb terminals were connected through hubs and concentrators to the huge central processing unit (c p u). Without the presence of client/ server network models, time sharing/multi-server, multi-tasking processors in network security was not yet a real issue. Network Security did however initially realize its importance as a result of a white-collar crime performed by a programmer for the financial division of a large cooperation. The programmer was able to embezzle money from an account that rounded their financial statements. In 1960s and into 1970s that the environment for network security did evolved.Â
The internet began 1969 as the APARNET, a project founded by theÂ
Advanced Researched Project Agency (ARPA) now Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) in United State ofÂ
America(USA).One of the original goals of the project was to create aÂ
network that would continue to function even if major sections of theÂ
network failed or were attacked. The ARPANET was designed to reroute network traffic automatically around problems in connecting system or in passing along the necessary information to keep the network functioning. Thus, from the beginning, the internet was design to be robust against the denial-of â€“service attacks. The true need of network security emerged in 1980s which swathe personal computer followed by the local area network (LAN) and the National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET). The history network security has been delineated, leading now into some of the numerous potential threats to information on a network. The first design on network security to route network traffic automatically around network he was done by the Defense Advance Research Project Agency (DARPA) in 1988. This network was called ARPANET. Transmission control protocol (TCP) and Internet protocol(IP) were developed and communication become more stable.
1.3 PROBLEM OF THE STUDY
Since the emergence of hacking way back in the 1950sÂ
when amateur radio enthusiasts would tune into the police or military radio signals to listen to what was going on the United State of America. Most of the time, these â€œneo-hackersâ€ were simply curious â€œinformation junkiesâ€ looking for interesting piece of information about government or military activities. The thrill was being privy to information channels others were not and doing so undetected, and since Network Security has become a very important part in the Information communication Technology (ICT), since most network user or client and organization now operate on the Internet or World Wide Web(WWW) technology and with the whole world aiming to be a global village. The problem of security on the networkÂ
has become more increasing. Network related activities with negativeÂ
implications that violates security policies like gaining access to a user account, gaining privilege access and using the victims system as a launch platform for attacks on other sites, probe, scan, account compromise, packet sniffers, root compromise, denial of service (DOS) network spoofing e.t.c. An overview of these network vulnerabilities or incidents and how to tackle them is the focus of my project work.
1.4OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
To further tighten security of the actual network being protected.
To expose the importance of understanding the principles of network security.
To make the information on the computer invulnerable.
To avoid snooping by intruders life.
To ensure information integrity and confidentiality on the computer.
To avoid commercial or military espionage.
1.5SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
User can maintain privacy.
Awareness about information security to network users or clients.
Availability of information on the network computer to authorize user.
User can avoid prying by non-technical user.
Awareness about networked information availability to users.
To make network security policy to the network users.
1.6SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Network security comprises of various platforms or approaches, but in this write-up; Design and implementation of software system in tackling network vulnerabilities or incidents was the focus of my project work.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
During the process of this research, the following Limitations were encountered, these limitations are:
Time to learn new applications.
Getting a computer system to do some editing was really challenging.
Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) did not make things easy for me either.
Time to go for more research was really challenging due to other academic work.
Money to print some relevant materials.