This is presentation of information on the detailing of structural members in Buildings. Structural detailing is a branch of structural work that transposes the ideal or works of a Structural Engineer in working drawings for easy utilization in the building construction works. Working drawing are produced by an architect and a structural Engineer for easy use by a contractors.
The processes of detailing put n place was in conjunction with the recommendation of the concrete society and the Institute of Structural Engineers. In building construction, a good interaction and relationship between the architects Structural Engineers, Quantity Surveyors and Contractors are required. The methods, scales, symbols and notations must be stonverdized and understood by all parties involves in a project to immunize risks and communication hindrance.
A structure in broken down into identifiable elements for detailing work like beams, columns, slabs etc which enables the different detailing aspects to be fully addressed and understood.STRUCTURAL SYMBOLS
The abbreviation recommended for structural detailing works are as follows:-
R.C = Reinforced Concrete
Nog = Drawing
Hor = Horizontal
Vest = Vertical
Dia = Diameter
Fdn = Foundation
Cone = Concrete
Col = ColumnTypes of Reinforcement
R = Mild steel bars
Y = High yield barsComments relating to Reinforcements
L = Centre line
B = Bottom
T = Top
C/c = Centre to centreTABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER TWO: DETAILING PROCESSES
CHAPTER THREE: DESIGN, CONDITION, AND SUMMARY
CHAPTER FOUR: REINFORCED CONCRETE
CHAPTER FIVE: ENGINEERS DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS
CHAPTER SIX: DETAILING OF THE ELEMENTS
Before a designer can relate his requirements clearly in construction industry, a drawing is to be prepared, this is because the drawing serve as a general means of communication. Therefore the drawing is adopted mostly, than other means of communication in the Engineering Sectors.
A structural Engineer mostly engages himself in designs on construction of structure, like roads, bridges, railway, dams, building, runway and other public works.
The structural engineer makes initial design, which are usually free – hand sketches of the work. These sketches are used to make clear and neat working drawing, which will be used by the builder of contractor after approval for construction by the authorities involved.
The contributions of a detailer in highly significant to the construction process, for a well detailed drawing is a good medium of reducing the risks of building collapses and to avoid delays arising from doubts and too frequent classifications.
Floor plan 1:75; 1:50
Foundation plan 1:75; 1:50
Elevation 1:75; 1:50
Construction details 1:20; 1:10
Cabinet details 1:50; 1:25
Wall sections 1:20; 1:10
Details of connection, lings 1:5; 1:2
Plans shall be drawn as transverse section through all structural members immediately above portion of structure under consideration.ELEVATIONS
Elevations shall be drawn as a vertical section immediately adjacent to the element under consideration. Structural members cut by the section shall be shown in full lines and member behind the section in broken lines.SECTIONS
Sections shall show only material out by the section plan. The dimension of sections shall be of the left for beams and downward for column. The section shall be drawn as close as possible to the plan or elevation to which it refers and should be described by letters, readable from bottom of the drawing. Section through concrete on drawings may be show as highly shade areas.GRID LINES
Grid lines provide a reference system for beams and column. It is convenient from top to left corner of the drawing using letters for one direction and numbers for the other.
Gridlines do not necessarily have to be straight or at right angles to each other or actually pass through beams or columns but should be sufficiently class for the reference to be obvious.
Pencils and drawing pans
Drawing boards and tee square
Drawing sheet / paper
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