The study aimed to assess the quality of drinking water in Olowotedo community of Ogun state, Nigeria. Five samples were taken from different sources (wells, borehole, tap and sachet water) were analyzed, Selection of water samples was carried out using proportionate allocation, equal allocation, simple random sampling and systematic sampling methods depending on the stage. The water quality parameters examined and their results for all the five water samples were; colour having 0.0TCU, taste and odour were absent, temperature was 24.7oC, 26.2oC, 25.6oC, 25.5oC and 25.7oC respectively, turbidity was 0.0NTu, sulphate was 0.0ppm, Ph was 7.42, 7.24, 7.75, 8.15 and 8.55 respectively, hardness was >150ppm, nitrate was >10mg/L, >10mg/L, >3.4mg/L, >1.94mg/L and >1.0mg/L respectively, iron was 1.65mg/L, 0.25mg/L, 1.5mg/L, 1.85mg/L and 1.7mg/L respectively, chloride was 62ppm, 15ppm, 50ppm, 60ppm and 65ppm respectively, resistivity was-1 , conductivity was 246, 223, 362, 400 and 400 respectively, salinity was 400, TDS was 144.8mg/L, 142.4/L, 219mg/L, 116.7mg/L and 114.8mg/L respectively, coliform and E-coli were only present in one of the five samples.
Finally, there is an urgent need to improve on the quality of drinking water in Olowotedo town coupled with mass health education to the community.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Acknowledgement iv Abstract v
Table of Content vi
List of Figures viii
List of Tables ix
List of Plates x
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Problem Statement 5
1.3 Significance for the Study 6
1.4 Aim and Objectives 6
1.5 Limitation 7
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Sources of Water Supply 8
2.2 Properties of Water 9
2.3 Quality of Drinking Water and Drinking Water Quality Guideline 9
2.4 Water Pollution / Contamination 14
2.5 Water Treatment 16
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Study Area 18
3.2 Study Design 20
3.3 Study Population 20
3.4 Sample Size Determination 20
3.5 Procedure 23
3.5.1 PH 23
3.5.2 Turbidity 24
3.5.3 Color 24
3.5.4 Total dissolved solids 24
3.5.5 Chlorides 24
3.5.6 Residual chlorine 25
3.5.7 Nitrates/Nitrite 25
3.5.8 Fluorides 26
3.5.9 Iron 26
3.5.10 Faecal coliform and Total coliform counts 26
3.6 Data Analysis 26
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS
4.1 Background 28
4.2 Laboratory Analysis of quality Drinking water 28
4.2.1 Laboratory Analysis of Physical Quality of Water 34
4.2.2 Laboratory Analysis of chemical quality of water 36
4.2.3 Laboratory Analysis of Bacteriological Quality of Water 38
4.3. Comparison of quality of water of differences sources 38
4.4 Discussion 41
5.2 Conclusion 44
5.3 Recommendations 44
This study assesses the physical and chemical composition as well as the organoleptic properties of different water sources in Olowotedo community, Obafemi Owode Local Government Area, Ogun State, South west, Nigeria. Water is necessary to sustain life, optimize growth, lactation and reproduction in animals. It is required for digestion, metabolism of energy and nutrients, transport in circulation of nutrients and metabolites to and from tissues, excretion of waste products, maintenance of proper ion, fuid and cushioning environment for developing foetus.
Furthermore to achieve the MDGs of access to improved water sources is better to incorporate each element to understand and recommend the major factors which hinder the vision of the long term programs for the provision of safe or quality water and sanitation services is very crucial.
Water is a nutrient of extreme importance for animals and intimately involved in a wide array of bodily functions. It serves as the universal solvent in the extracellular and intracellular compartments, as 99% of all molecules in the body. However, drinking water for livestock may be contaminated by a number of factors including minerals, manure, microorganisms, and algae. These contaminants can impact the appearance, odour, and taste of drinking water as well as its physical and chemical properties which may directly impact animal health by causing disease and infection; others have a more indirect effect and may cause animals to decrease their overall water intake. With the availability of good quality water been an indispensable feature for improving human being performance, ruminant producers need to be concerned about the provision of high quality drinking water sources for their consumption so as to ensure optimal nutrition and good performance.
However, creating community awareness of the water supply and sanitation services is one of the options for improving sustainable access. Improving the water supply coverage and quality has a number of consequences in addition to the fact that investigating the socioeconomic and other factors affecting household water
consumption patterns provides guidance for policy makers and those in various agencies implementing projects. It also ensures the projects capture the major points to be considered before installation begins and ensures the ongoing provision of a service that is fundamental to improve health, reducing the burden of women and children carrying water long distances, and enabling users to live a life of dignity. Water supply and sanitation services should not be seen as isolated factors.
Water is a common natural chemical substance containing two atoms of Hydrogen and an atom of Oxygen. Its common usage refers to liquid form, though has other forms: solid water- ice and gaseous forms - water vapour and steam.
Water is indispensable for life and socioeconomic development of any society. It is used in domestic activities (cooking, drinking, washing, bathing etc), agricultural activities (e.g irrigation, gardening), generation of power (hydroelectric power plants), running industries, recreational activities etc. It is very essential for human existence and sustenance of life. Water constitutes 60%-70% of the total body weight. A
man can live for several days without food but will only survive for few days without water. Therefore, water is indispensable for normal physiological
function of plants and animals. In spite of its importance in sustenance of live and livelihood, it is the major cause of morbidity and mortality because of limitations in access and quality. The basic physiological requirement for drinking water has been estimated at about 2 litres per capita per day which is just enough for survival. World Health Organization (WHO) states that domestic water consumption of 30-35 liters per capita per day is the minimum requirement for maintaining good health. However, the amount of water required by individuals varies depending on climate, standard of living, habit of the people and even age and sex.
One factor that impinges more on the accessibility to enough quality drinking water is the distance of the source from house. This condition forces the individual most especially the women and children (especially girls) to transverse many kilometers to get safe drinking water (which deprives them from engaging in productive ventures or going to school like their male counterparts). In addition to this, in order to reduce the hardship in getting water, they may resort to reducing the quantity of water used in the house far below the recommended volume and also they may resort to fetching water from unimproved sources e.g. unprotected well, pond, stream etc
Safe (quality) drinking water is that which does not present any signifcant health risk over life time consumption, including any sensitivity that may occur in different stages of life. It is water which is free from pathogenic microbes, hazardous chemicals/substance and aesthetically acceptable (i.e. pleasing to sight, odourless and good taste). It is important that this type of water should not only be available, but also be available in enough quantity all the time
To assess quality of drinking water, physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters must be considered, although water from a source may not pose any health threat to consumers, they may abhor it due to its colour, odour, or taste. Physical parameters include colour, smell, temperature, PH, turbidity etc. There are myriad of chemical substances which may be naturally present or introduced (even chemicals used for water treatment) into water; those that are naturally present seldom pose risk to health. However, chemicals released due to anthropogenic activities (fertilizer, pesticides, herbicides, industrial effuents and byproducts etc) carry more health risk to consumers. Fortunately, whether chemical naturally present or introduced into water, there are maximum allowable concentration (limit) of most of them proposed by World Health Organization (WHO) which serves as guide. Some of the chemical substances include residual chlorine (RC), Iron (Fe), Fluoride (Fl), Nitrate/Nitrite, Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg) etc. Bacteriological (microbial) parameter is used to assess drinking water quality using the index /indicator concept as advocated. The infectious risks associated with drinking water are primarily those posed by faecal pollution and their control depends on being able to assess the risk from any water source and applying suitable treatment to eliminate the risk. Rather than trying to detect the presence of pathogens at which time the consumer is being exposed to possible infection, it is better practice to look for organisms, while not pathogenic themselves, that show the presence of faecal pollution and therefore the potential for the presence of pathogens. For this reason, Escherichia coli (E.coli) is universally used as an indicator organism to assess water treatment and widely preferred as index organism for faecal contamination.
Safe water which is a basic necessity is still a luxury for many poor developing countries of the world today. It has been estimated that over 1.1 billion people do not have access to drinking water from improved sources. Eighty percent of the unserved populations live in these three regions Sub-Saharan
Africa, Eastern Asia and Southern Asia. Eighty- four percent of these people are the rural dwellers
Access to drinking water from an improved source is signifcantly higher in urban than in rural areas. In rural areas, in virtually the entire developing world, drinking water coverage from an improved source remains unacceptably low.
Water treatment plants are poorly maintained, some have become obsolete and urgently need upgrading which seldom occur despite the population increase (due to increase in birth and rural-urban migration). Pipes laid to convey water to houses hardly get to their destination because they are shabbily done with substandard materials.
Due to the recognition of the impact of water and sanitation, national and international strategies, goals etc have been developed and one of the recent declarations on the global front is the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In addition, the UN Millennium project task force on water and sanitation recently recognized that integrated development and management of water resources is crucial to the success or failure of all the MDGs as water is the centre to livelihood of all individuals.
Outcomes of many international conferences on health, water and sanitation led to co-operations and collaborations between international organizations and nations to provide improved sources of water, provision of technical assistance to governments, monitoring etc. Despite the declining water coverage rate in Nigeria, various successive governments had made efforts both on the federal and state levels to increase access to improved drinking. In the 1960s Niger and Chad river Basins were commissioned to produce hydrological map of Nigeria�s water resources. Creation of dams in various part of the nation for hydroelectric power generation, agriculture and domestic uses, establishment of Water Boards and Corporations at regional and state level for distribution of potable water to urban and semi-urban areas.
To extend this service to rural communities, the government created Directorate of Food, Road, and Rural Infrastructure (DFRRI), Agricultural Development Projects (ADPs) and co-opting of some non-governmental organizations such as UNICEF and recently World Bank to partner with government in developing Nigeria�s water resources. Establishment of Federal Ministry of Water Resources (FMWR), River Basin Development Authority (RBDA) in 1976, National Water
Resources Institute (NWRI) in 1977 saddled with responsibilities in training, formulation of policies, monitoring etc.
A national water supply and sanitation policy which was adopted in January, 2000 and the policy made adequate water supply and sanitation a right of all Nigerians also gives responsibility to all the three tiers of government, private sectors and the benefciary.
Although a lot has been done to increase access to improved source of drinking water, more still need to be done in term of translating policy to action (doing the talking), monitoring water quality regularly in order to nip any outbreak in the bud, monitoring and controlling activities of water vendors �pure water� producers to ensure safety of their products. In addition to these, concerted efforts should be made to maintain present equipment and upgrade them when necessary to cope with teeming and growing population of the nation.
1.2 Problem statement
Water i s one of the most important necessities of life required by man, animal and plant. It is not only essential for life but also an indispensable factor in socio- economic development of any community. Ancient civilizations are traceable to availability of source(s) of water which propelled agricultural, industrial, and economic development.
Globalization and population growth have placed enormous demand on industry and commerce, it has also affected the availability and quality of consumable waters. Waste toxic substances from agricultural chemicals, animals (including human) and industries have combined to increase the level of toxic contamination in both surface and underground waters.
MDG target 10 aims to halve by 2015 the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and sanitation. Nigeria being a member of the UN Security Council needs to double her efforts to realize this target. In spite of the decade on water and sanitation and all the different efforts, the water situation in Nigeria appears to be deteriorating. Only 48% of Nigerians in 2004 had access to improved drinking water, a decline in coverage as at 1990 when the access to improved water was placed at 49%. Even these low fgure could be an over representation: Proliferation of water vendors who get their water from unimproved
sources and the �pure water� business which various researches have provedthem to be unsafe for drinking (Aliyu and Victor). There are taps without water and such taps may have worked last many months or years ago. The treatment plants pump raw water to the community due to the fact that it lacks chemicals for treatment.
This point to the fact that achieving this in Nigeria is seems impossible except it redoubles its effort and intensifes the present reforms on water and sanitation.
1.3 Signifcance of the study
One of the millennium development goals is to ensure environmental sustainability and accessing quality water for healthy living, achieving this as may be stipulated may be impossible in Nigeria as the political will and mismanagement of resources. This is to reduce by half the population of people without access to sustainable improved drinking water. Previous studies on quality of drinking water
in different parts of Nigeria revealed high contamination in the various
samples of drinking water : Aliu in his study of bacteriological quality of water
in Dutsin-Ma, Katsina State, shows that most non-tapped sources of drinking water
were heavily contaminated whereas tap water were only slightly contaminated and about 36% cases of diarrhoea were caused by contaminated water. Similarly, a study in Zaria, Kaduna State on quality of �pure water� (packaged water) by Aliyu, equally reveals that all samples failed to meet the WHO recommendation of coliform count for drinking water. While studies in various parts of Nigeria have documented the failure of the water supply to meet minimum WHO quality standards, no similar study has been conducted in Ogun State. The public health signifcance of quality cannot be overemphasized. This study will aim to provide empirical evidence on the quality of water available to residents in a section of the Ogun State capital that hopefully will guide water policy makers in actions to improve water supply quality in the state.
1.4 Aim and Objectives
The aim of this study is to assess quality of drinking water sources in Olowotedo town, Ogun State Nigeria.
Study Objectives are:
1. To determine the source(s) and availability of drinking water available to residents in Olowotedo town.
2. To assess the physical, chemical and bacteriological quality of the drinking water from the different sources.
3. To recommend the most healthy and cost effective sources of drinking water
4. To serve as a guide to the government or private bodies who cares to development the community
5. To compare the physical, chemical, and bacteriological characteristics of drinking water in Olowotedo town with WHO standard of quality of drinking water.
? The diffculty in getting access to some areas in Olowotedo town made the coverage limited.
? Due to high fnancial cost involved, the number of samples and the parameters that have been included for testing were limited. A general chemical analysis would have included as much as ffteen parameters.
? This study did not include virology, parasitology, heavy metals and radiological examination because of fnancial limitations and diffculty in accessing a standard laboratory that could carry out the examinations.
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