REFINING OF PALM KERNEL OIL

  • Type: Project
  • Department: Chemical Engineering
  • Project ID: CNG0512
  • Access Fee: ₦5,000 ($14)
  • Pages: 75 Pages
  • Format: Microsoft Word
  • Views: 329
  • Report This work

For more Info, call us on
+234 8130 686 500
or
+234 8093 423 853

ABSTRACT
This work studied the refining of crude palm kernel oil derived from the kernels within the nut of a palm fruit.
This research project was aimed at reducing the non-glycerides present in oil in their crude form using an alkali method of refining.
The crude palm kernel oil was first washed with distilled water by heating the mixture in an electric heater for about 2 hours to reduce the impurities present in the oil in their crude form, degummed with phosphoric acid and neutralized with NaOH (caustic soda).The saponification value, iodine value and acid value was analyzed and their values are: for crude palm kernel oil, 33.1, 695.45 and 746.13 respectively, for neutralized palm kernel oil, 11.22, 725.6 and 687.24 respectively.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover Page - - - - - - - - - -i
Title page - - - - - - - - - -ii
Certification - - - - - - - - - -iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - -iv
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - - -v
Abstract - - - - - - - - - - -vii

Chapter One
1.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - -1
1.2 Background Of The Study - - - - - - -1
1.3 Statement Of Problem - - - - - - -4
1.4 Aims/Objective of the Study - - - - - -4
1.5 Scope of the Study - - - - - - - -5

Chapter Two
2.0 Literature Review - - - - - - - -6
2.1 Vegetable Oils - - - - - - - - -8
2.1.1 Classification of Fats and Oils - - - - - -9
2.1.2 Characteristics of oil Classes Lauric Acid Group - 10
2.1.3. Uses of Vegetable Oil - - - - - - 12
2.2.1 Hydraulic or Mechanical Press Extraction - - 13
2.2.2 Solvent Extraction / Leaching: - - - - - 15
2.2.3 Factors Affecting the Rate Of Leaching - - - - 17
2.4 Methods Of Refining Of Crude Palm Kernel Oil - - 19
2.4.1 Chemical / Alkali Refining- - - - - - 19
2.4.2 Physical Refining - - - - - - - 20
2.4.3 Aim Of Refining - - - - - - - - 21
2.5 Origin Of Oil Palm (Palm kernel Oil) - - - - 22
2.5.1 Palm Oil Processing Unit Operations - - - - 25
2.5.2 Kernel Recovery - - - - - - - 26
2.5.3 Principles Of Preservation - - - - - - 27
2.6 Methods Of Treatment - Crude Palm Kernel Oil - - - 28
2.6.1 Degumming Treatment - - - - - - 28
2.6.2 Bleaching Treatment - - - - - - - 29
2.6.3. Deodorizing Treatment - - - - - - 31
2.7 Fractionation Of Palm Kernel Oil - - - - - 33
2.7.1 Dry Fractionation - - - - - - - 34
2.7.2 Detergent Fractionation - - - - - - 35
2.7.3 Solvent Fractionation - - - - - - - 35
2.7.4 Palm Kernel Oil Fractionated Products - - - - 36

Chapter Three
3.0 Methodology - - - - - - - - 38
3.1 Research design - - - - - - - - 38
3.2 Research setting - - - - - - - - 38
3.3 Instrument for data collection - - - - - 39
3.3.1. Material - - - - - - - - - 39
3.3.2 Equipments - - - - - - - - 39
3.3.3 Reagents - - - - - - - - - 40
3.3.4 Preparation of Reagents - - - - - - 40
3.4 Refining Procedure - - - - - - - 41
3.4.1 C.P.K.O and Distilled Water - - - - - - 41
3.4.2 C.P.K.O and Phosphoric acid - - - - - 41
3.4.3 C.P.K.O and NaOH (caustic soda) - - - - - 41
3.4.4 N.P.K.O and Distilled Water - - - - - - 42
3.5 Characterization of P.K.O - - - - - - 42
3.5.1 Physical Characterization - - - - - - 42
3.5.2 Chemical Characterization - - - - - - 43

Chapter Four
4.0 Results and Discussion - - - - - - 46
4.1 Results - - - - - - - - - 46
4.4 Analysis Table - - - - - - - - 48
4.5 Discussion of Results - - - - - - - 50

Chapter Five
5.1 Conclusion - - - - - - - - 52
5.2 Recommendation - - - - - - - 52
References - - - - - - - - 55
Appendixes - - - - - - - - 56
REFINING OF PALM KERNEL OIL
For more Info, call us on
+234 8130 686 500
or
+234 8093 423 853

Share This
  • Type: Project
  • Department: Chemical Engineering
  • Project ID: CNG0512
  • Access Fee: ₦5,000 ($14)
  • Pages: 75 Pages
  • Format: Microsoft Word
  • Views: 329
Payment Instruction
Bank payment for Nigerians, Make a payment of ₦ 5,000 to

Bank GTBANK
gtbank
Account Name Obiaks Business Venture
Account Number 0211074565

Bitcoin: Make a payment of 0.0005 to

Bitcoin(Btc)

btc wallet
Copy to clipboard Copy text

500
Leave a comment...

    Details

    Type Project
    Department Chemical Engineering
    Project ID CNG0512
    Fee ₦5,000 ($14)
    No of Pages 75 Pages
    Format Microsoft Word

    Related Works

    The introduction  Methodology Materials needed Characteristics of bacillus that can produce amylase isolated from Palm kernel waste water in the production of local palm oil Characteristics of bacillus specie that have the potential to bioflocculate isolated from Palm kernel waste water in the production of local palm oil Aim and objectives of... Continue Reading
    The introduction Methodology Materials needed Characteristics of bacillus that can produce amylase isolated from Palm kernel waste water in the production of local palm oil Characteristics of bacillus specie that have the potential to bioflocculate isolated from Palm kernel waste water in the production of local palm oil Aim and objectives of the... Continue Reading
    1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters) is an alternative fuel for diesel engines. It is an alcohol ester product from the transesterification of triglycerides in vegetable oils or animals accomplished by reacting lower alcohols such as methanol or ethanol with triglycerides. The National Biodiesel Board (USA)... Continue Reading
     The Palm Kernel Oil Production Business plan 2018 is a comprehensive palm kernel oil processing business plan and feasibility study that will assist you with all the needed ideas and plans to start a successful Palm Kernel Oil Processing business. This Palm Kernel Oil Business plan will help you with: Contacts of Palm kernel oil extraction... Continue Reading
    “MARGARINE” PRODUCTION USING OIL BLENDS FROM PALM KERNEL, COCONUT AND MELON ABSTRACT Palm kernel, coconut and melon oils were extracted and refined. Their physical and chemical characteristics were examined. The refined oils were blended to produce three samples of margarine: palm kernel oil margarine (PKO), palm kernel and coconut oils... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT Palm kernel, coconut and melon oils were extracted and refined. Their physical and chemical characteristics were examined. The refined oils were blended to produce three samples of margarine: palm kernel oil margarine (PKO), palm kernel and coconut oils margarine were tested for free fatty acid and Iodine value with the following results... Continue Reading
    “MARGARINE” PRODUCTION USING OIL BLENDS FROM PALM KERNEL, COCONUT AND MELON ABSTRACT Palm kernel, coconut and melon oils were extracted and refined. Their physical and chemical characteristics were examined. The refined oils were blended to produce three samples of margarine: palm kernel oil margarine (PKO), palm kernel and coconut oils... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT Palm kernel, coconut and melon oils were extracted and refined. Their physical and chemical characteristics were examined. The refined oils were blended to produce three samples of margarine: palm kernel oil margarine (PKO), palm kernel and coconut oils margarine were tested for free fatty acid and Iodine value with the  following... Continue Reading
    Abstract This study produced bio-lubricant with palm kernel oil and compared its quality with Tonimas Oil ( A commercial lubricating oil in the market). Palm kernel oil based lubricant was produced by dissolving 12.5ml of Zinc Dialkyl Dithiophosphate and 47.5ml of Ethylene propylene into 400ml of PKO and stiring them together to achieve a... Continue Reading
    CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.0     GENERAL INTRODUCTION Energy is a fundamental pillar of modern society as well as being an essential building block for socio-economic development (UNIDO, 2007). The awareness of the imminent depletion of fossil fuels coupled with a global energy crisis has stimulated interest in the research for alternative... Continue Reading
    Call Us
    Get this work
    whatsappWhatsApp Us