ANTIBACTERIAL POTENCY OF SELECTED LOCAL MEDICATED SOAP ON SKIN ISOLATE

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  • Department: Biology
  • Project ID: BIO0105
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ABSTRACT


Five local soaps! Duduosun, Zee, Hause Soap, Yoruba Soap and Yoruba Soap were investigated for their antibacteria activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus spp, Bacillus spp and Klebsiella spp. Identification of the bacteria species was by standard microbiological techniques which included Gram staining and biochemical testing/,. Minimum inhibitory and minimum bacteria activities of the soaps were determined by the disc agar diffusion method. Dudu Osun and Zee soap had the highest antibacterial activity (18mm against staphylococcus aureus) (15mm against Streptococcus spp). While Mayor and Yoruba soap exhibited the least zone of inhibition (0mm against Bacillus spp) (0mm against Escherichia coli) significant differences (p-value = Nan) were observed on the different concentrations of soap preparations used in the work. Staphylococcus aureus was very sensitive to most of the antibacterial soaps used while Escherichia coli showed higher resistance to the soaps. The local soaps analyzed have bacteriostatic and bacteriocidal effects on the test pathogens while complete resistance was shown by some of the isolates even at higher concentrations of the soap preparation used. The cloth washing soaps had no antimicrobial effect on the tested pathogens. The use of local soaps is thus recommended in homes, schools, offices and hospitals as a way of minimizing and stopping infections that are hither to spread through the hands.



TABLE OF CONTENTS


TITLE PAGE-           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           i

CERTIFICATION     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           ii

DEDICATION           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           iv

ABSTRACT   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           v

TABLE OF CONTENTS       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           vi


CHAPTER ONE

1.1       INTRODUCTION     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           1

1.2       Aim     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           3

1.3       Objective         -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           3


CHAPTER TWO

2.0       THE HUMAN SKIN             -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           4

2.1       Common skin infection/diseases         -           -           -           -           -           -           4

2.2.2    Impetige          -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           4

2.3.3    Furuncles         -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           5

2.4       Scabbies          -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           5

2.4.1    Pathogens commly associated with skin infections    -           -           -           -           6

2.4.2    Staphylococcus epidermidis   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           6

2.4.3    Staphylococcus aureus            -           -           -           -           -           -           -           7

2.4.4    Entrococcus feacalis   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           7

2.4.5    Clostridium difficile   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           7

2.4.6    Escherichia coli also known as E. coli is a gram-negative      -           -           -           8

2.4.7    Bacillus spp     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           9

2.4.8    Streptococcus  -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           9

2.5.1      Websiella       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           9

2.3       Factors that enhances microbial growth on skin         -           -           -           -           10

2.31.    Invaginations and appendages, including sweat glands (ecrine and a porcine)         10

2.5.2    Host factors    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           10

2.5.3    Environmental factors specific to the individual        -           -           -           -           10

2.5.4    Topography     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           11

2.6       Antimicrobial agents commonly used against skin pathogen-           -           -           11

2.6.1    Phenols            -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           11

2.6.2    Soaps   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           11

2.6.3    Ammonia (NH3)          -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           12

2.6.4    Alcohol           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           12

2.6.5    Detergents       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           13

2.7       Types of soaps-           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           14

2.7.1    Medicated soap           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           14

2.7.2    Local soap       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           14

2.8       Types of local black soaps      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           14

2.8.1    Dudu-osun soap          -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           15

2.8.2    Zee-black soap            -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           15

2.8.3    Mayor black soap        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           15

2.8.4    Yourba black soap      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           15

2.8.5    Hause soap      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           15

2.9       Uses of local soap       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           15

2.8.1    Active compound that are commonly found in local soap     -           -           -           16

2.8.2    Glycerin          -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           16



CHAPTER THREE

3.0       MATERIALS AND METHODS      -           -           -           -           -           -           18

3.1       Study Area      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           18

3.2.1    Gram staining -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           18

3.2.2    Catalase test    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           19

3.2.3    Oxidase test    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           19

3.2.4    Caogulase Test            -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           19

3.2.5    Citrate test      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           20

3.2.6    Triple sugar iron test (TSI)      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           20

3.2.7    Indole test       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           21

3.2.8    Methyl red test            -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           21

3.3       Voges prokaeur test    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           22

3.3.1    Sample collection and processing       -           -           -           -           -           -           22

3.3.2    Preparation of sensitivity disk soap samples   -           -           -           -           -           22

3.4       Media and reagent preparation           -           -           -           -           -           -           23

3.4.1    Sensitivity testing       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           24

3.4.2    Disk diffusion assay   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           24

3.4.2    Determination of MIC                        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           24


CHAPTER FOUR   

4.0       Results-           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           26

4.1       Diameter of Zones of Inhibition (mm) of soaps on different bacteria isolates           29

4.2       Result Showing Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC)  -           -           -           30

4.3       Result Showing Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC)          -           -           30

4.4       Comparism of Soap samples on Different Bacterial Isolates -           -           30

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1       Discussion       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           31

5.2       Conclusion      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           31

5.3       Recommendation        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           31

REFERENCES          -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           32


 


ANTIBACTERIAL POTENCY OF SELECTED LOCAL MEDICATED SOAP ON SKIN ISOLATE
For more Info, call us on
+234 8130 686 500
or
+234 8093 423 853

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  • Type: Project
  • Department: Biology
  • Project ID: BIO0105
  • Access Fee: ₦5,000 ($14)
  • Pages: 39 Pages
  • Format: Microsoft Word
  • Views: 370
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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Biology
    Project ID BIO0105
    Fee ₦5,000 ($14)
    No of Pages 39 Pages
    Format Microsoft Word

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