DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AN IN-SITU SALINOMETER FOR AGRICULTURAL SOILS

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  • Department: Agric Engineering
  • Project ID: AGE0107
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The increase of salinity in soil and water bodies which simultaneously declines the productivity of agriculture is of great concern to the Nigerian Federation which holds agriculture as a major means of survival for its economy. Thus, the proper monitoring,use and management of soil and water bodies is a sure way to proffer solutions to food shortage and poor crop yields. This can however be achieved by the use of a fast, reliable, and accurate in-situ salinometer. A portable in-situ salinometer was constructed and used to measure the conductivity, temperature and salinity of different soil and water samples. The sample resultd were classified into groups viz: low salinity, moderate salinity and high salinity according to standard range of saline soils.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of content

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                                                                    1   

1.1   Background of Study                                                                              1   

1.2   Statement of Problem                                                                             3   

1.3   Objective of the Study                                                                            4   

1.4   Scope of Study                                                                                        4  

 1.5   Significance of Study                                                                              4   

1.6   Justification of Study                                                                              5


CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW                                                        6

2.1   Conceptual Framework                                                                          6

2.2   Salinity and Salinization                                                                        7

2.3   Sources of Soil Salinization                                                                  10

2.4 Salinity Testing and Measurements                                                        14

2.5 Salinometer                                                                                             19

2.6 History/Evolution of Salinometer                                                           201

2.7 In-situ Systems                                                                                     25

2.8 Electrical Conductivity and Salinity                                                    27

2.9 Electrical Resistivity and Salinity                                                        29

2.10 Electrolysis                                                                                        30

2.11 Conductivity, Resistivity and Temperature                                       32

2.12 IAPSO Standard Sea Water                                                               32

2.13 Indicator Signs of Soil Salinization                                                   33

2.14 Impacts of Salinity on plants                                                             34

2.15 The New trend                                                                                   37


CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS                                   38

3.1 Materials                                                                                             38

3.1.1 Microcontroller (ATmega8)                                                            39

3.1.2 The probe                                                                                         45

3.1.3 Variable resistors                                                                            46 

3.1.4 Fixed voltage regulator                                                                    48 

3.1.5 Liquid crystal display (LCD)                                                           50 

3.1.6 Capacitor                                                                                          52 

3.1.7 Resistors                                                                                           53 

3.1.8 Battery                                                                                              54 

3.1.9 The power switch                                                                              551

 3.2 Methods                                                                                               55          

3.2.1 System specification                                                                   55

3.2.2 System design                                                                              56 

3.2.3 Project Embodiment                                                                    59

3.2.4 Working Principle of the Salinometer                                         60

3.2.5 Calibration of the Microcontroller                                               61


CHAPTER FOUR: TEST AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION         64

4.1 Test                                                                                                 64         

4.2 Performance Evaluation                                                                 65

4.3 Precautions                                                                                     66


CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION  67

5.1 Summary                                                                                         67

5.2 Problems Encountered                                                                    67

5.3 Suggestion for Further Studies                                                       68

5.4 Conclusion                                                                                     69

5.5 Recommendation                                                                           69

REFERENCE                                                                                              701

                                                    

APPENDICES

APPENDIX A: Software Programming                                                            78

APPENDIX B: Bill of Engineering Measurement and Evaluation (BEME)    85

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AN IN-SITU SALINOMETER FOR AGRICULTURAL SOILS
For more Info, call us on
+234 8130 686 500
or
+234 8093 423 853

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  • Type: Project
  • Department: Agric Engineering
  • Project ID: AGE0107
  • Access Fee: ₦5,000 ($14)
  • Pages: 93 Pages
  • Format: Microsoft Word
  • Views: 337
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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Agric Engineering
    Project ID AGE0107
    Fee ₦5,000 ($14)
    No of Pages 93 Pages
    Format Microsoft Word

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