Increase competition and more discerning consumers has meant that all types of organization including Emenite Company Limited are striving for greater productivity, whilst maintaining or enhancing quality. This applies to both services and manufacturing organizations.
In manufacturing the greatest stimulus has been form Emenite Company Limited – Emenite have developed a total quality approach with the target of zero defects. This has been accompanied by lean production methods which have dramatically increased productivity. The key feature of high quality production is the use of quality check management system.
The aim of quality check management system is to produce items of high quality, exactly at the time they are required. There is pursuit of an excellence at all stages with a climate continuous improvement.
The key elements of quality check management system includes a more toward zero inventory elimination of non-value added activities, an emphasis on perfect quality is zero defect, short set-up; a more toward a batch size of one; 100% on time deliveries; a constant drive for improvement and demand –pull manufacture.
The application of efficient production techniques such as quality check management system have enable some manufacturing companies throughout the world to become very successful in quality production.
The drive for quality productivity is also apparent in numerous services and manufacturing industries improved methods and the use of Information Technology have enabled industries to increase their quality production.
2.0REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE.
Erwing, (1978) stated that Advanced Manufacturing Technology (AMT) and Just-In-Time (JIT) systems have a total quality control philosophy in which the only acceptable quality level is zero defects.
Fagbo, (1988) discovered that there is strong evidence that high product and/or service quality in directly linked to long-run success. According to him, examples include Japanese card and consumer electronics, Mercedes cars, Marks and Spencer, Emenite Limited of Belgian Etex group from Belgium etc. In consequence, control systems relating to quality and the creation of a “quality culture” are of paramount important to all organization.
The most important first step is to realize that quality cannot be inspected in, it must be designed in. Quality is not something which is solely the concern of inspectors at the end of the production line.
There are some ways and identified by different authors through which the quality check management can operate.
According to Hart, (1985) he started that product design as a way of achieving quality check in a company, this involving having price, performances, ease of manufacturing and quality in mind throughout the design stage. An important factor is simplicity; fewer parts preferable of standard design – product designers should also liased closely with manufacturing and process engineers. A well-designed product not only works well, it is easy to manufacture. During the design state the technique of value analysis used extensively. This is the systematic examination of cost factors in order to devise ways of achieving the specified purpose, most economically, at the required standard of the quality and reliability.
Iganiga, (2003) identified production engineering as a process of designing the methods for making a product to the design specification. This also includes the tools and processes to be used, the tolerances and finished requires assembly sequences and so on.
Jefkin, (1985) stated that manufacturing consideration must be part of product design because it is estimated that only 20% of quality defects can be traced to the production line. The other 80% being attributable to design factors or poor purchasing. In quality check management the responsibility for defects has move away from quality control inspectors to the operatives.
Operators are expected to maintain their equipment and produce zero defect output. Erwing, (1978) stated that quality control management are aided by C.N.C machines and automatic equipment which often incorporates computerized gauging and measuring devices. In addition there is extensive use of statistical process control and control charts.
Quality check management system emphasis in progress rather than waiting until the product is fully completed before it gets a final inspection. This was the traditional method and is still undely used even though it is less efficient system.
Kotter, (1994) argues that the quality of out put depends on the quality of input materials- this mean that quality requirement are also imposed on suppliers to ensure quality and no inspection is performed on incoming suppliers.
Kuku, (1998) argues that another way of quality check management is through output inspection. He stated that the inspection is being replaced by in-process checking final inspection based on sampling does still take place mainly to satisfy management that quality control in production is being maintained.
When quality check management is properly applied and the incidence of defects decrease, total manufacturing cost, including warranty and service cost decrease.
According to Ogolo, (1996) higher quality means lower costs. This is not surprising because if items are made correctly first time money is saved from the avoidance of detection, reworking, scrapping, repairing in the field and so on.
Total Quality Managements (TQM) is where there is a defined culture of quality awareness and quality improvement in every process, in every department and at every level in the organization. Organization or industry practicing TQM have a long-term commitment to quality and consider quality to be a more value of the organization. They take an external view of quality as compared with the traditional western internal view.
The internal view of quality concentrates on ensuring that items produced conform to their specification within accepted tolerances. This view considered that quality costs money and, as production costs must be minimized, quality factors are always limited their cost. On the other hand the external view, pioneered by Jeklin (1980) places much more emphasis on the original design, which the customer ordered. This view considers quality as the heart of the production process where every part will be fit for its purpose and will be right first time. With this philosophy there is emphasis on continual improvement of the product and preventing errors rather than relaying on post-production inspection to reject faulty items and to correct mistake.
Juran, (1980) showed that over 80% of failures in production were attributed to management and stressed that management should deal with the causes of production problems rather than the short-term concentration on the symptoms, which is all too common.
Edward, (1981) advocated a total quality approach as well as changes in other management practices - a number of which have still to be accepted fully in the country. The key points advocated by Edward include:
The organization, at all levels, must accept and practices their commitment continuously improve customer satisfaction; quality improvement must be embedded in the organization’s culture from top to bottom, aim for constant improvement in products and the processes; providing adequate training and equipment and encourage pride in their work and the product; encourage cooperation and teamwork and develop trust throughout the organization; encourage self-improvement and education at every level; and choose suppliers for quality and reliability rather than price.
Ikpeze, (1997) discovered quality circles as another facet of the total quality approached which originated in Japan and are spreading in other countries. Quality circles are small groups which meet regularly to discussed matters such as productivity, safety and quality. The ideal is to develop and implement improvements directly at work place. The circles select their own leaders and are seen as the practical way of delegating real powers to employees and of achieving grassroots participation.
A feature of quality check management is that closer links are forged between top management and shop-flow operators. Operatives are encouraged to take more decisions and accept more responsibility. As a consequence, middle management and the formal structure that go with layers of management are being reduced or eliminated.
Jaklin, (1980) advocate that more than 80% of the organization in African are adopting a total quality approach. These include services and government organization as well as manufacturers.
Quality check management are operational with adequate documentation to support the quality system across the whole industry, also available records are needed to ensure that customers quality requirements are being met. Quality systems must be planned and developed across all functions in the organization with adequate resources, equipment and training.