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EFFECT OF MASS MEDIA CAMPAIGN ON THE HIV AIDS MENACE IN NIGERIA

(Mass Communication)

EFFECT OF MASS MEDIA CAMPAIGN ON THE HIV/AIDS MENACE IN NIGERIA

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

1.0              Background of study                                                                         

1.1       Historical aspect of HIV                                                                                

1.2              Statement of the research problems                                                   

1.3              Objective of the study                                                                                   

1.4              Significance of the study                                                                               

1.5              Research hypothesis                                                                           

1.6              Research  hypothesis                                                                          

1.7              Definition of terms                                                                                        

1.8              Assumption                                                                                                    

1.9              Scope and limitation  of the study                                                     

CHAPTER TWO                

2.1              Source of literature                                                                            

2.2              Literature review                                                                                            

CHAPTER THREE

3.1              Research method                                                                                           

3.2              Research design                                                                                             

3.3              Sampling procedure                                                                           

3.4              Measuring instrument                                                                        

3.5              Data collection                                                                                               

3.6              Data analysis                                                                                      

3.7              Expected results                                                                                             

CHAPTER FOUR   

4.1       Data analysis and result                                                                                 

4.2              sample characteristics                                                                         

4.3              discussion                                                                                                       

CHAPTER FIVE                                        

Summary and Recommendation                                                                    

5.1              Summary                                                                                                        

5.2              Conclusion                                                                                                     

5.3              Recommendations                                                                                         

Questionnaire                                                                                     

References                                                                                                     

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

            The media as had been established can provide for audience members information on Varity of issue.  By emphasizing certain topic stressing particular interpretation and projects specific themes the media creates some distorted impression with their “ definition” portraying  reflection of the real society ie if sexual promiscuity is  regularly portrayed as widely practices and accepted in this sense, the viewers  may accept such definition as normative in the society  because of media definition when somebody defines his/ her own over behavior in such a situation norms  internalized from media sources may guide his/ her  conduct.

            The media has gone a long way in teaching people some behavioral practices and pervading them to internalize the norm. the presence of media has attended the nature of societal communication norms

            Large advance has concentrated on the media to provide a continuos flow of news entrapment    political commentaries and other types of messages people depend on te media for various forms of gratification open content and if denied such communication they feel deprived and show (Benelson 1950:887-898) the potential effect of the media in shaping attitudes and  behaviors of people has been the subject of considerable debate because many faction both good and bad aspects modify media influence.  It is clear that the media to have at least  and indirect influence on people attitudes and this is by making them aware of events outside their immediate experience / knowledge.

            We    have learned through research that the images and world carried by media determines within the limitation posed by intervening  factors  opinions  of people and this actions woodier wilson  1998” said “unless you get the right thing go wrong it is believed that the perfect world there is often a vital step to finding the cure for many social ills.

            In this it is believed that extensive coverage and true  information from media houses on the Hiv / AIDS campaign will  reach and perhaps touch on the sexual   habits of youths  particularly in Enugu  environs.

            The backgrounds of this study reflect that this epidemic is called Hiv/ Aids when a disease is sexually transmitted the public and efforts to eradicate it are fortified because of its effect to the society.  As at present one may say that AIDS is our published, it is the worst disease to have  struck human rale since the plaque of the 14th century.

Some health experts are saying that this will cause even more deaths and destruction then the black plague while experts are looking for remedy to this dreadful disease others claim to  have the  capability and even cure for Aids  victim  but was said to have  lacked scientific proofs.  Mean while statistic should that is million people are with this disease and do not know  it for year (VAN IMPT 1987 P.1)

1.1       HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF HIV/ AIDS

            The devastating  disease “acquired immune  deficiency syndrome” (AIDS ) and human immune virus  (HIV )  came  into the world in 1981  when Dr  Michael Gottle  of the university of California  noticed   unusual  disease “Pnemocystiscarini prieumonia “ in four patients that were homosexuals and all below 40years  age (Njoku, 1989) .

            The world health organization (WHO) explained it to be a virus of  “undermined geographic origin” the  first case of HIV / AIDS  were identified in the U.S.A in  1981  and  the disease was first recognized in  Uganda in  1982, but cases of it  had been observed in the early 1970’s before  it was fully identified.  The virus  causing  it HIV – was discovered in 1983 it was  not up unit march 1986 that the second  type of AIDS virus named  HIV –2  were discovered (Njoku obi 1989) the first confirmed Aids case in African was  reported in 1984 in Nairobi kenya apparently  AIDS   came  from  green  monkeys in Africa.  This is the theory and scientific proof and it moves to what  is known as the “species barrier” from animal to humans this has terrible effect on human and its gotten  through monkeys but  or bestiary (sexual activity between a human and an animal) but the shocking thing is that one person of American has committed such acts with  animals (VAN IMPT 1987:29)

RISK

            It is estimated that among couples where one partner is a carrier there is one in four chances that if  carriers is male he will infect the female  and one in ten possibility that the female will infect the  male (THE CUARDIAN JULY 2 1992) prognosis (force cast of problem development ) current statistical report suggest that if a person becomes  HIV positive (A) there is a 60 tendency of developing in AIDS within 10 years of diagnosis.  The figure is based on studies of group of HIV individuals who were inflected 10 years ago.  The remaining 40% many suffer  health  problem such as skin and  genital  diseases one as person  has been diagnosed as having full blown  AIDS life  expectancy  is an average of 20 months ( THE GUARDIANS, JULY 2, 1992)

DISTRIBUTION

            HIV /AIDs is common homosexual intravenous drug abuser hemophiliacs and recipients of blood transfusion and heterosexual partner of AIDS victim.  Among the risk groups Homo’s constitute about 75% of the victims’ intravenous drug abusers constitute about 15% and the remaining 10% is distributed among other groups (Njoku obi1989)

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

            HIV /AIDS can be transmitted through sexual relationship (homosexual or heterosexual) blood transfusion and meternofetal (before ordinary or after birth) This certain  individuals  are placed at a very high risk of being exposed to the disease (Njoku obi, 1989)

INCUBATION PERIOD

 

            It  takes on the average of 29 months and 12 months between exposure to the virus and  manifestation of AID in adults and children respectively.  The virus can however, remain dormant  in an individual for up to Aid  in children partly explain the time high estimate risk of AIDS is children compared to adults although their immune system and blood value  may be relevant says Prof. Njoku (Njoku obi 1989)

THE NIGERIAN SITUATION

            On the 24th  of June1986, the then honorable minister for health  Prof. ransom  kuti, uncapurated   the national “Expert advisory committed  on  AIDS (NEACA) to advice him  on the statue   of  AIDS in  the country and possibly measure  to  control it’s spread  up to the end of 1988, NEACA has screened over 25,000 person which proved positive  for.

            The first person to die of AID was a thirteen  years old girl  who was discovered to be Hiv carries  in 1996 there was total infection of AIDS victim  which toll up to 22.6 million’ where as 6.1million died of this AIDS. And if the epidemic is unchecked the figure will go up by the tear 2005. Over 300 people infected  daily 3% are  male while the remaining 7% are female (THE GUARDIANS JULY 31, 2000 )

            Last week  it was  reported to  deputy  governor of cross river state chief John Okpat  that  150 person tested positive in the others state of the  federation.

Obviously,  AIDS is  no respecter of person.  Any body can fall victim to it at any time except of one  play  safe by using condom or by abstaining  totally from anything  that will expose one to the disease or victim. earlier researches done or this subject have shown that the greatest numbers infected  are from the age of  20- 40 yrs. This disease that touches the most intimate and most private past of human lives without vaccines for prevention and cure demands our greatest concern effort and our utmost attention.

1.2       STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEMS

The  role  of mass media in a society cannot be over emphasized.  It gives beyond the ordinary art  and science of new gathering  and  dissemination to shaping  opinions and  attitude of people  accurate analysis and interpretation of news event through their information education entertaining   and socializing function the mass media affect people attitude and behavior (Graham mitten 1983 32 )

            In  this topic however the effect of mass media campaign on  HIV /AIDS menace  in Nigeria is knowledge acquire through frequency of firm, and coverage of  campaigns behavior instincts  and  knowledge of  sexuality supporting a  programme  and  other factors are employed to  measure persuasion campaign effectiveness.  In view of there programmes it therefore becomes necessary to take a had look at the role of the media in the HIV / AIDS menace in our society especially  in Enugu metropolis.

            However research  is  a systematic  search of  knowledge facts with the primary aim of finding solution to existing  problem.  Proper identification of the problem  (s) steaminess the direction of the study.  Therefore the problem this work aims at solving are

 Research work aim at solving are.

a.                   To  know the effectiveness of media toward informing  people on the ills of HIV/AIDS

b.                  To determine the major sources of information regarding to HIV /AIDS

c.                   To effect exposure to HIV/AIDS campaign on the sexual behavior of the people in Enugu metropolis.

1.3       OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

            The objective of studying the effect of media campaign on the HIV/ AIDS  menace in Nigeria  is  to  know  what  AIDS  really means and also  to let people know that AIDS is  real

Furthermore to know whether the number of  AIDS victims are increasing or decreasing with  the campaign on the above the study of this topic will also help us to educate the people, on  the  various way AIDS can be contacted because  many people  engage themselves in dirty activities which they don’t  know that it is a way of  contacting AIDS for   instance a woman infected  with AIDS virus transmit it to her  future during  pregnancy or to her baby during  breast feeding blood transfusion using one string to inject so  many people manicure  and pedicure barbing  different people with are razor blade  all these are the way people can contact AIDS.

            Another reason for embarking on this topic is to assist in spreading the gospel on the threats of AIDS

The topic at the end will help the general public in Enugu to know murch people have   being infected with AIDS and it will also help them to know whether this compassing has any effect or .  the reason  for embarking on the topic can never be over looked because it will help us to know whether the number of people affected in increasing or decreasing for instance according to press release by Dr Tony Eloike, Enugu co-ordinate  of AIDS  campaign said  that  from what is on the ground with AIDS in Enugu state expect projection is that by  this year we will be contending with AIDS in Enugu state  expect projection is that  by the year we would be contending with 130,000 new HIV infection per year, 11,00 cases of AIDS per  year  3,000 AIDS   death per year 10,00 AIDS related  orphan  per and the age is 20 – 24 years of age.

            The study is interested in the audience especially the youth  the question is do  their sex and age affect the way they perceive the message  are they really getting the information about the consequences of the epidemic.

1.4       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The research work will be of great value  to the people of Enugu and the entire nation at large.  It is during this research that we come to  understand that even in the remote village  here (Enugu) people are affected with HIV/AIDS  because they refuse to lake the advice given by the campaign coordinator and ministry of health.  The compassing as we have see is still  to achieve many purpose on the people because they still think  that the compaign is meat only for those who engage  themselves in sexual immorality not knowing that there are  so many ways one can  contact HIV/AIDS, these are according to “A  Guide for survived” published by hairs country medical society and Houston Academy of medicine.

1.                  Sexual contact: This means having sexual intercourse (vagina or and ) with intercourse can lake place between a man  and a woman or because the  penis can invisibly tear  in the tissue of the rectum  allowed  infected serve to the blood stream  directly. It occurs as well as vagina though not often

2.                  Blood contamination:- This happens when the HIV/AIDS get  directly  into the blood  stream  through the transfusion of infected blood  into uninfected

3.                  Mother to child: A woman who is infected  with the HIV/AIDS virus may spread the disease to her baby  during pregnancy or during child birth.  There  also the possibility of passing it on to the child through  breast  feeding.

4.                  Use of unsterilized razor that has been used on an infected person is  another means of transferring HIV/AIDS.

Therefore you can see that if the person of Enugu can adhere to the campaign the number of people that are yet to be infield will decrease because according tot he compaign coordinator no medicine has been found  for the cure of the disease.

If the Enugu people  and the gender public adhere to the compaign it will be benefic to both the youths  and adults because the disease is no respect of any body.

1.5       RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.                  Do people get most information about HIV/AIDS through the mass media?

2.                  Does exposure to HIV/AIDS comparing discourage youths form sexual promiscuity?                 

3.                  Do youth that are single expose themselves more to HIV/ AIDS then those who are married?

4.                  Is the campaign helping in decreasing or increasing  the number of AIDS victims in Enugu ?

1.6       RESEARCH HYOTHESES

            The research hypothesis for this study is derived from research question they are

1.         Hi        most respondent will get information about  AIDS through mass media.

  Ho:    most respondent are not likely to be informed about HIV/ AIDS.

2.                  H2: Exposure to HIV/ AIDS campaign will tend to discourage youth from sexual misconduct.

Ho:      Non exposure to HIV / AIDS will tend to encourage youth to sexual promiscuity.

3.         H3:       youth who are single will expose themselves to HIV/AIDS more than those youths who are married.

­H0:       youth who are single will not expose themselves to HIV/ AIDS more  than those youths who are married.

4.         H4:       The campaign is helping in decreasing the number of AIDS victims in Enugu

H0:       The absence of the compaign will bring about increase in the number of AIDS victims in Enugu

1.7       DEFINITION OF TERMS

MASS MEDIA :- This concern with all organ of communication concerns with the disseminator  of  information about the HIV/AID. These include the print media (Newspaper magazine ) and  electronic media (Radio  and television)

COMPAIGN :- This can be defined as a  serve or organized actions in support of a cause in the area of our study it can be defined  as an organized action  taken towards eliminating HIV/AIDS in our society.  It can come in form of rally workshop seminar advert and also in a dramatically from  aiming  towards educating  people on ills  of HIV /AIDS.

HIV: The human immune virus it is the virus that goes with AIDS when one is infected with the HIV the nest thing is AIDS itself.  It can stay for a long time on the body before manifesting to a full blown AIDS.

AIDS:- A –Acquired mean the diseases is an  infection one that infect through contact with an infected person. It is not hereditary in  nature.

I – immune – The bodies defence system which prefects us from disease.

D – Deficiency: This means not working normal when it affects the immune  system it stop it from fighting  against disease

S – syndrome:- A group of symptoms which  when  they occur  together you know that the immune system is week.  And the person involved has a particular disease or condition

MENACE: - A threat on something or to cause  injury or damage on something. AID menace means a great threat on the people which may do much more harm on the people.

METROPOLIES This means that the study is base on the capital city of Enugu or main town in Enugu

1.8       ASSUMPTIONS   It  is assumed that the respondent not only have assess the mass media (Newspaper magazine television and Radio ) for information but at the same  time are exposed to HIV / AIDS  news commentaries, Advertisements and jungles  it is also  assumed that the respondent to the questions are informed sufficiently to understand the  question.  In this regard therefore effort should be made to frame question as simple as possible and straight  to the  point.

Finally it is assumed that the respondent are of age understand what sex entails.

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