OWNERSHIP INFLUENCE AND CHALLENGES OF MEDIA ESTABLISHMENT
IN EFFECTIVE DISSEMINATION OF NEWS INFORMATION
(A CASE STUDY OF NTA, AWKA)
This project work is mainly based on the theoretical and practical approach of the ownership influence and challenges on media establishment in effective dissemination of news and information. In this work, the researcher tried to revaluate to types of the media that is, government owned media like NTA Awka Zonal station with a view to recommending a more effective ownership. That is the type of ownership influence and challenges that is geared towards attaining professionalism in media operation particularly in Nigeria. Moreover, it is also done in a critically way in order to examined the challenges facing Nigeria media establishment like Radio, Television, Newspaper, Magazine, Journals etc. The researcher narrowed down his research to television using NTA Awka as the case study. Below is a brief run-down of my research procedure and finding. The first chapter looked at the historical background of the study, stating the research problems and the aims and objectives of the study. It also highlighted the significance, research question and limitation of the study. Chapter two help to review critically the related literature. While chapter three states the research method to be used in carrying out the research. Like research design, sample method of data collection and analysis. Chapter four help to analyse the data collected and the result of the research in relation to research question. Finally chapter five help to summarize the entire research work and give some recommendation for further studies.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
1.3 Objectives of the study
1.4 Significance of the study
1.5 Research Questions
1.6 Research Hypothesis
1.7 Scope of Studies
1.8 Limitation of the study
1.9 Theoretical Framework
1.10 Definition of Terms (Conceptual and Operational)
2.1 Sources of Literature
2.2 The Review
2.3 Summary of Literature
3.1 Research Method
3.2 Research Design
3.2 Area of Study
3.3 Research Population
3.4 Research Sample
3.5 Sampling Technique
3.6 Instrument for Data Collection
3.7 Method of Data Collection
3.8 Method of Data Analysis
3.9 Expected Result
Presentation and Interpretation of Findings
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis
4.2 Analysis of Research Question/Hypothesis
4.3 Discussion of Result
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1 Summary of Major Findings
1.1 Background of the Study
As a researcher, one will be able to know that from the inception, that before the independence of Nigeria, electronic media establishment has been constituted in other to cater for the pleasure of entertaining and informing the colonial masters and its subject it is obvious that despite the adversarial role of providing entertainment for colonial masters and their subjects, that other responsibilities seems limited, like their pivotal roles.
Besides, in 1977, following the federal military government decision to take over all the television stations in the country. Former eastern Nigeria television authority “ENTA” has come to be known as Nigeria television authority “NTA” Awka Zonal station.
This early arrangement marked the beginning of dependency of these media stations of government, which by implication severely affected their function, responsibilities and independence. Because their legitimate function, has been projected, serving as the mouth piece of the government this follows a maxim that “he who pays the pipe-dictates the tune” NTA Awka basically and always sticks to the dictates of the government in power for its survival. Since its concept of freedom of disseminating information has been mortgage by the financial dependency of these media on government institutive and various mobilization campaigns by selecting and emphasizing these campaigns in the news. At times it goes further to do special reports to high light problem area for government attention.
Apart from the colonial set up in the history of ownership, ownership of mass media in the federal government of Nigeria constitution.
In section 36, sub section 1 -3 of Nigeria 79 constitution put it thus: “it provide for any one, the legal right to establish and operate any opinions, provided that only government at the federal and state level or other person or body authorized by the president shall be out fitted to establish or operate a wireless broadcast medium. And 1992, then Military Head of State, General Ibirahim Badamosi Babanigida promulgated a decree allowing private individual participation in the ownership of electronic media.
The motive of liberalizing the electronic media were purposely for two reasons firstly, to fine the gaps in government owned reportage and secondly to generate profit reward for the financial enterprise.
Minaji System Television (MST) 43 VHF Obosi, MST 41, Lagos/Abuja is the first private television station sited in Obos in the Eastern Regional market with its high level of governmental and industrial entrepreneurship activities and purchasing power. Africa Independent Television (AIT) owned by Raymond Aokpse in another notable private television in the country unlike “ NTA” Awka channel 5 which is owned and controlled by the government.
In other words, media are those channels of information, radio, TV, Journals, Newspaper and magazine which can make the same message available to across-section of people inspite of their distance from the serve of the message.
That is to say, as the nervous system receives, processes and interprets stimulus reaching the body in order to achieve the needs, organize and arrelate the activities of the body, the broadcast media today collects information from a wide diversity of sources and places in the globe processes and reports back to people located in an equally wide diversity of places in the Diaspora in an effort in their interaction and interdependency moves. Meluheni’s postulations attracted wide spread reactions, through one of such least technological over-determinism. Thus crities believes the concentration on the differences between media could undermine class examination of various types of message in the same medium or similar messages across media.
Nevertheless, the extent to which to broadcast media have gone in making the work smaller and more interaction it obviously lucid. The effects of these media are becoming so pervasive that people in the communication field are today talking of global neighborhood family. Therefore, regardless of what ever the radio and television say, (broadcast stimulating in reaching a heterogonous audience) facilitates relationship in the world to an unspeakable degree. During world soccer and Olympic event at least half of the world were focused on one topic a sport encounter between nations. The media thus set agenda, intereret and pursuits.
Apparentary, it entails a system comprising nations in the Diaspora where people live and work jointly regarding given economical, social and political objectives regardless of religion affiliation, language, race, ethnic nationalities, geography etc and where communication is used to give expression to the interactions.
1.2 Statement of Research Problem
It has always been claimed by government and private that interferences with the activities of the media, is non-conformity to the policies of owners have always resulted in the immediate dismissed of journalist from their duties.
Despite the excitement and noise about international relations, the international news and information media can hardly assume any meaningful international unity consciousness and responsibility. This is simply and squarely because each medium integrated in the welfare of its home country. The same thing applies to the news agencies. And treating news and information to suit a country interest means emphasizing individual peculiarities, which alienate other interests, introduce differences and complaints, and eventually become the problems and bane of true international cooperation through communication.
At present, international communication is an information background where countries showcase process in wilding linguistic energy solely to advance their interest. All efforts to realize genuine international inter-relationship based on equity, equality, justice and honest are given cosmetic touches and approached with ideologies that are sublet screens for media imperialism the gate way to other domination types.
1.3 Objective of Study
The purpose of this study is critically assess and evaluate ownership influence and challenge of media establishment in effective dissemination of news – information, a study of NTA Awka. To find out how the ownership management and control affects and influence the traditional objectivity of news – information dissemination in Nigeria using NTA Awka.
Agencies to ascertain the nature of government control and influence on Nigeria government owned media cum the nature of the content dissemination and programming as well as the thought perceptions and opinion of all government media using NTA Awka.
The above objectives construct are what necessitated this study through survey research design – methodology.
1.4 Significance of Study
This study will in no doubt be of most valuable to all and sundry, big and small, young and old and every media appreciator cum express. Also, its pertinent to note that its invaluability is hinged on the fact that everyone in the society loves the independency of the media. Whether government control or privately owned media 70 so this end, the researcher carefully raised some answer to the entire challenges facing the media. Be that as it is pertinent to note that the research work will expose the need for a carefully samitization and seminar works on media ownership and control by is owners at all time to foster them to uphold the ethics of through journalism that rational adherence to the principles of objectivity and the ordinances of the freedom of information act.
1.5 Research Question
Do ownership influence and government control of the management in NTA Awka affects their effective dissemination of information?
To what extent has government media ownership and management affects the media policy and reporting style of NTA Awka?
What is the nature of these ownership control over NTA Awka in their effective news dissemination to the public?
Is ownership influence and control the most challenging factor of NTA Awka?
1.6 Research Hypotheses
H1: Ownership influence and government control of the management of NTA Awka affects their effective dissemination of information.
H0: Ownership influence and government control of the management of NTA Awka does not affects their effective dissemination of information.
H2: Government media ownership and management negatively affects the media policy and reporting style of NTA Awka.
H0: Government media ownership and management positively affects the media policy and reporting style of NTA Awka.
H3: Government ownership and control of NTA Awka has a favoruable influence in their dissemination of news information.
H0: Government ownership and control of NTA Awka has a unfavoruable influence in their dissemination of news information.
H4: Ownership influence and control of media establishment is the most challenging factor of NTA Awka.
H0: Ownership influence and control of media establishment is not the most challenging factor of NTA Awka.
1.7 Scope of Study
In as much as this research work looks into ownership influence and challenges of media establishment in effective dissemination of news-information. The area of coverage cannot embrace the entire media in the nation. Therefore the researcher shall concentrate on NTA Awka, situated in Awka, the capital of Anambra State. This Awka shall be clustered into two main partioned constituency for a proper and fair representation. This partioned constituencies are:
- Awka North in which the main city is Achalla
- Awka South in which the seat of the Anambra State Government is situated, Anambra where in the government lodge is located and the Nise city where waec and other happening avenue is located cum the state head office and some universities.
1.9 Theoretical Framework
Looking at this theory, it reflects this work trace. And the theory is selective attention perspective. In this regards, the theorists made us to know and understand that although the eye can handle about five million bits of data per second, the brain is able to compute the information at a much lower rate. Obviously, at any given times, a person must select the information, which he or she will give active, attention, or else nothing will make sense.
This is because one of the problems associated with ownership influence and challenges is based on the audience selective perception perhaps the most workable definition or perception is that it is the process of making sense of experience (Haney 1967).
Moreover, the process of perception is not as simple as this definition may at first seem. To begin with different people do not experience the same stimuli in exactly the same way. Differences in environment, in sense of reception or receptors etc. contribute to difference in the way person perceives reality.
Besides, no two persons invest a particular work with exactly the same meaning to one another. The word happy may mean not being depressed to another. This brings to mind again of the individual difference theory, which states that no two persons are alike, even identical twist.
Therefore, the level of our perception on media exposure differ from one persons to another and ownership influence and challenges on media establishment in effective dissemination of news information depend on the ways the people of Nigeria were exposed to the media both locally and internationally.
1.10 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Conceptual and Operational Definition
Ownership is the right of possession especially by law for somebody or body of persons who own a channel (Radio, television, newspaper, magazine, thought which information is transmitted.
i) Media policy- it means a plan of action or the media.
ii) Challenges – Tasks that must be fulfilled
iii) Nigeria – Refers to the society in a nation
iv) Media – This houses is all communication eg Radio, TV, Newspaper, and Magazine.
v) Establishment - To start off a building or house. The foundation base where project could stand.
vi) Dissemination – Sending messages to one another. Ability to reach out to heterogeneous audiences.
vii) Information – As informed. It could be oral or written.
i) Media policy – This is at various aims and ideas of media made by its owners.
ii) Challenges – The result obtained after some actions.
iii) Nigeria – The society where the message is focused
iv) Media – The ability of the television and other media of communication to create awareness to the audiences.
v) Dissemination – Exposing to all levels or angels for the interest of the targeted audience.
vi) Information – Be interm or informed. It could also be oral or written.
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