THE EFFECT OF AGGRESSION AND VIOLENCE ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
This paper presents the findings on bullying behaviour among secondary school students in Ogbe Secondary School. The purpose of this study was to explore the perception of teachers and students about bullying behaviour among secondary school in Ogbe. More specifically, the study explore the element of bullying, characteristics of bullying, factors and consequences of bullying behaviour among secondary school students as perceived by both teachers and students. Both qualitative and quantitative approach was used throughout the study. In which a cross sectional survey design was adopted. The study gathered 200 informant, where 133 teachers who were obtained through random sampling participated in the study. Purposive sampling was used to identify discipline teachers and students who participated in the interview. It was found that physical aggression was perceived to be the dominant element of aggression. Boys were highly preferred to be bullies than girls. Also, watching violent films was the dominant factor for aggression and poor academic performance was mostly preferred as the impact of bullying
1.1 Background of the study
Aggression among students of secondary school occur world wide, among all problems of secondary school, none is as debilitating as aggression because of its effect on the bully and the victim as well. Aggression is a pattern of behaviour in which one individual is chosen at the target of repeated aggression of one or others; the target person (the victim) generally has less power than those who engage in aggression (bullies). Baron and Bryne, (2005). Social psychologist in their definition says that aggression is a psychological violence; a sustain aggression that strips a person of control and dignity Paszkiewicz (2010). Based o n this definition, the researcher will accentuate that aggression is using power to hurt or humiliate other person. Aggression is rampart in our secondary school and it has a lot of effects on the students. It’s difficult to discover a secondary school today was aggression does not exist. According to the journal of the American Association; out of more 15,000 public school student surveyed in the United States, nearly 30% reported occasional to frequent involvement in aggression. Whether as a bully, or target or both. In the United Kingdom, the British School Health Education unit found that a quarter of 10 – 11 years old survey were bullied either everyday of “often”, another report says that 15% of Australian children admit to have being bullied weekly, the case with Nigerian school may not be different if appropriate statistic is taken. These figures can be higher in percentage depending on how one defines the problem and view its prevalence. If we will accept nicknaming children and excluding them from games as bullying, then these figures we see would get up to 100%. The characteristics of aggression have two basic parts. Firstly, researcher on aggression indicate that relatively few children are purely victims or pure bullies, rather a long number play both role, they bully some students, and are bullied in return by others (Vermande, Oart, Goudenard Rispens 2000). Secondly, aggression seems to be common all around the globe. Baron and Bryne (2005) asserted that, on this topic bullying has been truly international in scope and has been examined the occurrence of bullying in many cultures. Aggression is played out with alarming frequency now a days and bullies and their victims may be of either gender. Consequently, concerns of parents, policy makers, educators and the public have escalated in awareness that bullying has serious damaging effect for bullying victims, foods and communities. Countries around the world with the rise in the reported incidents of violence and the links that have been established between violence and aggression. In the western world, much attention has been devoted in stemming the act of aggression but in Nigeria, this act goes on in many schools unnoticed. (Bonke, 2009). Aggression has been defined variously by researchers. According to Lunmdtti cited in Bonke 2009. Aggression occurs when a person will fully and repeatedly exercise power over another with hostile or malicious intent. A wide range of physical or verbal behaviour of an aggressive or anti-social nature are encompassed by the term bullying. This involves insulting, teasing, a busing verbally and physically, threatening, humiliating, harassing and mobbing. Pepler and Craig (2000), cited in Bonke (2009) observed that bullying is the most common form of violence, it is what drives the culture of violence, permitting the most power to dominate the less powerful. Nickel (2005) and Bonke (2009) also defined bullying as the “international”, unprovoked abuse of power by one or more children to inflict pain or cause distress to another child unrepeated or occasion, aggression is a growing and significant problem in many schools around the world. It is the experience among children of being a target of aggressive behaviour of other children who are not siblings and not necessarily age mates. Generally students who get bullied can be regarded as being passive or being submissive victims. They are usually quiet, careful, sensitive, and they start crying easily. They are unsure of themselves and have poor self confidence of negative self-image (Oghiagbephan, 2010). A broad definition of aggression as opined by (Olweus, 1993; Coloroso, 2002 and Bonke, 2009) is when a student is repeatedly exposed to negative action on the part of one or more other students. This physical action can take the forms of physical contact, verbal abuse or making faces and rude gestures, spreading rumours and excluding the victim from a group are also common forms of bullying. This negative actions are not necessarily provoked by the victims for such actions to be regarded as bullying, an imbalance in real or perceiving power most exist between the victims and the persons who victimize him or her. Among deviant human behaviours in the society, aggression appears to be the most prevalent and perturbing. This is because aggressive behaviour is displayed everywhere in the society. It starts from the home in the form of physical or verbal aggression between couples, siblings, or parents using it as a corrective measure towards the children. Neighbours often display aggression among themselves due to one misunderstanding or the other. Various meeting places including village meetings are not spared of the exhibition of aggression. In the society hoodlums perpetrate aggressive behaviour in the form of robbery, kidnapping, rape and even murder. Sometimes churches are not even spared of verbal aggression.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Aggressive behaviours appear replete in our secondary schools. According to Shekarey Ladani & Rostami (2013), aggressive behaviours are common in schools. In the same vein, Aluede (2011) stated that violence in schools was an issue that had become more prominent in the last few years, as news articles about violent deeds within the school setting are now on the increase. Aggression among secondary school students is an issue of concern among stakeholders in education essentially because a school is an institution designed for teaching and learning. Unarguably, teaching and learning can only successfully take place in a conducive environment devoid of intimidation, harassment, insecurity and fear. It in view of this that the researcher intends to investigate the effect of aggression and violence on academic performance of secondary school students
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to ascertain the effect aggression and violence on academic performance of secondary school students, but to aid the completion of the study, the researcher intends to achieve the following specific objectives:
i) To investigate the role of aggression on student poor academic performance
ii) To ascertain the effect of violence on student academic performance
iii) To investigate if there is any relationship between aggressive behavior and student academic performance
iv) To investigate the impact of violence and aggression on the academic achievement of the student
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher:
H0: aggressive behavior has no effect on the academic achievement of the secondary school students
H1: aggressive behavior has effect on the academic achievement of the secondary school students
H02: there is no relationship between aggression and violence and student academic behavior
H2: there is a relationship between aggression and violence and student academic behavior
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is believed that at the completion of the study; the findings will of importance to parents and guidance as the study seek to elaborate on the dangers of aggressive behavior and violence, and it impact on the academic achievement of the student, the study will also be of importance to the teachers and management of secondary schools, as the study will help them formulate rules and regulations that will abolish or minimized the rate of aggressive behavior and violence among secondary school student, the study will also be of importance to researchers who intends to embark on similar study as the study will serve as a reference point, the study will also be of great importance to academia student and the general public as the study will contribute to the pool of existing literature.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers the effect of aggression and violence on academic performance of secondary school students. But in the cause of the study, there were some factors which militate against the scope of the study:
a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher have to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) FINANCE: the finance available to the researcher is a major constrain to the scope of the study, as the researcher has to maximize the available resources to course work and the study
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Aggression is overt, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other unpleasantness upon another individual. It may occur either in retaliation or without provocation. In humans, frustration due to blocked goals can cause aggression.
Violence is defined by the World Health Organization as "the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury or death.
Academic achievement or (academic) performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals.
1.8 STRUCTURE OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study its based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.THE EFFECT OF AGGRESSION AND VIOLENCE ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE