THE ECONOMIC IMPLICATION OF THE 6-3-3-4 SYSTEM OF EDUCATION IN EDO STATE
: A CASE STUDY OF OREDO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
This research work was aimed at finding out some economic implication of the new national policy on education (6-3-3-4) in some selected secondary schools of Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. After independence, education in Nigeria was in line with British education as it could not meet our needs and interest. Then the 6-3-3-4 system of education tends to direct Nigeria towards social, political, cultural and economic realities of the nation. It is aimed at self reliance. Some of the objectives of this study are;
1. To ascertain if the country can afford the 6-3-3-4 system.
2. To make parents and the general public to be aware of the economic implication of the 6-3-3-4 system. Eight secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State were selected and used for the study by using random sampling; the research instrument used was the questionnaire. Simple percentage procedure was used for the analysis of data and the hypotheses were treated with percentage.
Hypothesis of this study are;
1. The 6-3-3-4 system is only in principle but not in practice.
2. The new 6-3-3-4 system of education is preferred to the former 6-5-2-3 system. From analysis of data. It was clear that the use of teaching aids lead to better implementation of the system of education, that is (6-3-3-4).
Based on the findings, the following recommendations were made;
All levels of government intensify their efforts on internal sources of revenue. To purchase tools and equipment, bulk purchase of the items are recommended.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Education is as essential to man as life itself on this planet, earth. Societies through ages have one form of education or the other, whether indigenous or western education. Education varies from place to place and from time to time. In fact it is a very important means of developing any nation. The term education has not lent itself to any strict consensual definition as it depends on the perspective from which one views it. It can be considered as the process of acquiring knowledge, skills, attitudes, interest, abilities, competence and the cultural norms of a society by people to transmit this life to the coming generation so as to enhance perpetual development of the society. History had it that long before the advent of both Islamic and western education. Nigeria has an indigenous type of education (i.e. education for the survival of the people subsistence education). However, modern influences, at about 300 years interval to each other, robbed the country of its indigenous education to a great extent. For instance Christian education was later promoted by the colonial administration to suit it purpose of colonization (Abdulkareem, 1992) change in time witnessed change in the purpose of education in Nigeria as education later changed its focus towards developing individuals to contribute to the development of the nation and ultimately in preparation for self-government at independence.
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF 6-3-3-4 SYSTEM OF EDUCATION IN NIGERIA
A critical examination of the type of formal education in Nigeria before and after independence shows that this education was inadequate and unsatisfactory to the nations yearnings and aspirations. In the opinion of many scholars like nduka (1964); Fafunwa (1982); Obayan (1982). The education was parochial., elitist, regurgitate and irrespective to the need and aspirations of the Nigerian society. In a bid to check this abnormality. Therefore, the then federal government of Nigeria adopted education as an instrument for excellence for effecting national development. Thus, it is stated; education goals in terms of its relevance to the need of the individual as well as in terms of the kind of society desired in relation to the environment, and realities of the modern world and rapid social changes should be clearly set out (national Policy on Education, 1981). The then federal government therefore made efforts to find the type of education best suited to Nigeria development, hence the identification of “6-3-3-4 system of education” according to Omolewa (1986), the history of 6-3-3-4 system of education dated back to 8th September 1969 during federal commissioner for education, Mr. Weniuke Briggs inaugurated a conference which formulated the ideas leading to the 6-3-3-4 programme.
Omolewa (1986) stated that the programme was conceived as an instrument of nationality, it was designed to inject functionality into the Nigeria school system. The 6-3-3-4 was fashioned to produce graduates who would be able to make use of their hands, the head and the heart (the 3tts of education). When it was finally introduced in 1982, there had been inputs by various sectors of Nigeria professional community. Then the 6-3-3-4 system of education was seen as a laudable programme capable of ushering in an educational revolution in Nigeria; hence step in the right direction, towards the technological development of the nation. However, the current situation on ground is far from this idea. This system seems to be suffering from poor and shoddy implementation. This work thus examines the implementation of the technical subject’s aspect of the system using Ilorin as a case study. Particularly examined in this work are; students-teachers ratio; laboratory/workshop-students ratio, and availability of instructional facilities for teaching of the subjects in the study area.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
There has been a lot of criticism against the existing system of education in the country which was patterned after that of the colonial master. These criticism came from educationist, parent, politicians and other well meaning Nigerian concerned with the education industry. The argument has been that the existing system of education does not take into consideration the social, political, cultural, and economic realities of the country. Besides that, the system failed to develop meaningful and positive values in the Nigeria child but instead alienates him from his environment. There were no provisions for vocational training in the curriculum this omission has resulted in producing educational Nigeria who despise manual work and play down on the dignity of labour. Also, most secondary schools were of the grammar type and focused more on humanities than on science and allied courses. This picture was equally true of the university education in Nigeria. The consequence has been surplus supply of manpower in the field of arts and humanities and this is responsible for the increasing unemployment in the country while at the same time there is scarcity of technicians scientists as a result of this situation in our educational system, strong agitations came from different quarters in the country that the system be changed. In answer to the demand and wishers of the people, the federal government of Nigeria introduced a new system of education know as 6-3-3-4 in September, 1982 to replace the existing 6-5-2-3 system. The new 6-3-3-4 system is patterned after American system of education. The philosophy behind it, is pragmatism which stresses action.
According to the 6-3-3- plan, the system will be flexible enough to accommodate both formal and non formal education and will allow leaving and re-entry at certain points in the system. The six years will be for general basic education followed by three years of general education with pre-vocational subject like wood, metal work, shorthand, typewriting etc. It is so to encourage education leading to some marketable skills. For those who are able and willing to have a complete six years secondary education, it will be comprehensive but will have a core-curriculums designed to broaden pupils knowledge and outlook. The core-curriculums are group of subjects which every pupils must take in addition to his or her specialties. The next four years will be for university education and professional courses of varying duration. This new system, no doubt, is landmark in the educational development in this country. However, such gigantic venture will involve committing the nations scarce resources and this has economic implications. But despite its financial and other implications, there is optimism that in the long run, private and social benefits will outweigh the costs.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The main purpose of this study includes the following;
a. To examine the benefits that will be derived from the new 6-3-3-4 system of education.
b. To ascertain the alternative way of raising funds for the scheme and their economic implications.
c. Find out if adequate preparation were made smooth implementation of scheme.
1.4 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is rather a functional education, which enables its recipients to function economically, socially, morally, intellectually and politically. This education system in itself is a conscious effort at matching and merging academic and vocational education programmes. The 6-3-3-4 system of education in Nigeria is job oriented. It places premium on manual activities, technical proficiency, and respect for dignity of labour and economic efficiency. It is to provide the child with basic tools to prepare him for local craft. At secondary stage emphasis is on the acquisition of vocational skills, while it is professionally oriented at the tertiary stage so as to minimize unemployment and produce skilled manpower, n science and technology. In brief, it is to make individual capable economically and socially. It is also stated in the national policy on education that a priority of place is going to be given to religion and moral instruction for the moral and spiritual well being of individual, but “no child will be forced to accept any religious instruction which is contrary to the wishes of his parents” (Federal republic of Nigeria national Policy on Education, 1981). This would remove any unnecessary suspicion in terms of religion and religion clashes.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions have been designed for the research work to be carried out effectively.
a. What are the challenges facing the successful implementation of 6-3-3-4 system of education in Nigeria junior secondary schools?
b. How far have the stated objectives of 6-3-3-4 system of education been achieved at the junior secondary school level?
c. To what extent do the teachers qualifications and quality of teaching, affect the implementation of the 6-3-3-4 system of education?
d. How far have these challenges affect the performance of students in secondary school?
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study covers Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. Places visited for collection of data are selected secondary schools, ministries and some private homes.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The 6-3-3-4 system as used in this study means six years in primary education, three years in junior secondary education, three years in senior secondary and four years in the university education (tertiary).
Pragmatism: As used in this study means practically.
Social benefits as used in the study means the benefit that the public derives from the new system of education.
The terms 6-5-2-3 system as used here means six years of primary education, five years of secondary education, two years of higher school education and three years of the university education.
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