THE EFFECT OF EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION ON PUBLIC SECTOR PERFORMANCES
(A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA NATIONAL PETROLEUM CORPORATION (NNPC)
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Theoretical Framework
1.3 Statement of the Problem
1.4 Objective of the Study
1.5 Research Question
1.6 Significance of Study
1.7 Scope and limitations of the study
2.0 Review of Related Literature
2.1 The theory of motivation
2.2 What is Motivation
2.3 Classifications of Motivation theories
2.3.1 Content theories
2.3.2 Process Theories
2.3.3 Reinforcement Theories
2.4 Mallow’s Hierarchy of needs
2.4.1 Physical needs
2.4.2 Security Needs
2.4.3 Belongings and Love (or social Needs)
2.5 Motivation and Performance in Public Sector
2.6 How to motivate employees
2.7 The outcome of motivation to
employee and the organization
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 The design of the study
3.2 The Area of the Study
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 sample and sampling Techniques
3.5 Instrument of Data Collection
3.6 Validation of instrument
3.7 Method of Data Analysis
4.0 Presentation, Interpretation and Analysis
4.3 Analysis of Data
5.1 Summary of the study
5.4 Suggestion for further Study
Generally, an employee brings to the business organization a set of wants that issue from his basic needs structure. The satisfaction of there want is to some extents with the control of the make money feed their families well and enjoy better conditions of living. Hence, if working will make them earn more than they normally do, especially when they have skill and energy to do so motivation implies more incentives and inducements, which will make the workers feel more committed to duty because of the hope of the income it will aid to his regular salaries.
On various occasions, highly motivated people have achieved success despite the absence of good plans or effective organizational structure. And of course the more highly motivated the subordinate the less control is necessary to ensuring that work will be executed.
However, motivation is not a substitute for planning organizing and controlling. Motivation implies that more power has with the subordinate who may assist direction in carious ways.
An in-satisfied need creates tension, which stimulates drive within the individual. There drive generate search behaviour to find particular goals that if attained, satisfy the needs and leads to the reduction of tension. motivated employee are in a state of tension. In order to relieve this tension, they engage in activity. The greater the tension the activities to bring about the relief therefore when we see people working hard to some activity by a desire to achieving they are driven by a desire to achieving some goals that they perceive as having value to them.
Motivation and employee performance is a vital tool for achieving organizational goals. In the public sector, it is easy for the manager toad a little incentive to motivating his workers for greater performance and higher productivity.
Against the background, the estimated number of employee in National Nigeria Petroleum corporation (NNPC0 is 200 employed in Aba and 400 employed in Port Harcourt totaling 600 employed.
Therefore, research tends to finding out the problem facing Nigeria economy and employee performance. The research hope to finds out how and to what extent and improved incentives or motivation of employees in the NNPC helped in productivity and the effect of management productivity.
1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE CASE STUDY
The Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation, otherwise known as NNPC is a commercial Integrated International Oil company engaged in exploring production processing, transportation and marketing of crude oil gas.
Their products and derivatives.
The corporation is oriented towards efficiency, profitability and financial autonomy to maintaining its leadership roles in Nigeria as long-term growth and economic development through the start up and fostering of new gas and petroleum based Industries.
The NNPC was established in 1977 by the NNPC Act number thirty three (ACT 33) Pf the Year thoroughly the merger of the Nigeria National Oil development Company (NNDC where functions were mainly operational and the then Federal Ministry of petroleum resources which performed the regulatory function. The two body were merged to create a more virile oil agency and optimize human and infrastructure resources available to government. The then NNPC, Therefore performed both Operational as well as regulatory functions and it was divided into eight divisions to carry out those functions effectively.
In October 1985, the corporation was owing to the demand of Oil Industry, re-organized into six (6) autonomous limits known as sectors in a bid to encourage innovation, efficiency and positive aggressiveness.
On Monday 21st January 1988, presidents Ibrahim Badamasi, Babangida announce the re-organization and commercialization of a more result-oriented organization. In the new re-organization, which was the out come of along period of studies, seminars, work shops and restructured into three major responsibility namely; corporate services (which includes finance administration, public affairs Personnel technology and corporate legal matter): Operation (which include ,exploration and production, includes, exploration and production, gas manufacturing, petrochemicals and National Petroleum Investment.
Crude Oil marketing and production sector of the Industry, while the Corporations services and Groups executives Director (GED) heads Operations, Arms NAPIMS is headed by a co-coordinator
A high point of the re-organization is the establishment of eleven subsidiary Companies Under the operations arms the companies are: the Nigerian Petroleum Development Company Limited 9For exploration and production of petroleum). The interpretation for NNPC and other oils Africa, Warri Refinery and petrochemical company Limited (for refinery of certain black and polypropy lever petrochemical): Kaduna Refinery/ and petrochemical company Limited (for refinery of petroleum and production of Linear Alky Benzene and heavy zalkylates): and the pipe lines and products marketing company Limited (for buying Crude oil from government, transports some to refineries to NNPC depots for sales to marketers):
Other company Includes hydrocarbon service of Nigeria Limited (for petroleum products marketing abroad in joint venture with chevron): National Engineering and technical Company (to engineering NNPC jobs and other and others to be won in Nigeria and African): Liquefied National gas company Ltd. (to set up the LNG Project in joint venture with shell, and ELF).
Port Harcourt Refinery company Limited (for refinery petroleum especially for export), and the Element petrochemicals Company Limited (to Manufacture petrochemicals in a joint venture between NNPC and the Private sectors).
Another Important Aspect of this re-organization was the transfer of the petroleum inspectorate, the rest while regulating arm of the NNPC to the Petroleum. Resources Department of the Ministry of Petroleum Resources.
A major implication of the restructuring of the NNPC is now financially autonomous in all its operations.
Therefore, the corporation is expected to make regular dividend payments to government as a returns for government investment in its.
1.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
In research studies and report of these kinds, different approaches are usually used as a heuristic diverse to explain what really constitutes the scope of such study.
Douglas McGregor late professor of managerial at MIT State the human bid of enterprises is all a piece of assumptions management Holds about control human resources determine the whole character of the enterprise.
These assumptions determine also the quality of the successive generations management.
Douglas McGregor concluded that a manager’s new of human nature is based on one of two sets of assumptions about people and that a managers new of human nature is based on one of two sets of assumptions about people and that managers tend to mould their behaviour towards subordinates according to which set of assumption they hold. The first set of assumption, basically negative, McGregor labeled theory X and the second Y.
Under theory X the four assumptions held by the manager are:
Employee inherently dislike work and when even possible, will attempt to avoid it.
Since employee dislike work, they must be covered controlled or threatened with punishment to achieve desire goals.
Most workers place security above all other factors associated with work , and will display little ambition.
Contrary wise McGregor listed the following assumptions under theory Y.
The expenditure of physical effort in work is as natural as play or rest.
External control and the threat of punishment are not the only means of objectives to which he is committed.
Commitment to objective is a as result of the reward associated with their achievement.
The average human beings have under proper conditions not only to accept but also to seek responsibility.
There assumptions McGregor felt provided a better explanation of human nature and therefore indicated the need for a different managerial strategy in dealing with people .
The motivational implications if you accept McGregor’s analysis, is that the framework presented by Maslow. Theory X assumes the Lower order needs dominate individuals. Theory Y dominate individuals. Theory Y assumes that the higher order needs dominate. McGregor himself held to the belief that theory Y assumptions were more valid than theory X. Therefore, he proposed ideas like participation indecision-making.
Opportunities for responsible and challenging jobs, and good group relation as approaches that would maximize an employees job motivation.
Relating McGregor’s theory X and Y to present situation in NNPC, One can categorically say that most managers in the corporation use both theory X and Y.
However, for effectiveness productivity in terms of employee motivational to be ascertained in an organization the both theories X and Y should be practical zed used by only management for a better performance.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
There is a general belief in work environment that employees in state owned enterprise are not well motivated.
Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC). Is just one such organization. In the past six year or more, there have been charge of Negligence leveled against NNPC management Culminating into incessant Strices Agitations labour unrest and eventually how productivity evidence in shortage of petroleum product in the country. The above situation has even been brought into lime light by regular facing the NNPC, but it is regrettable that there has note the case of the problems that are apparently plunging the nation to untold hardship.
On the other hand, since employees represent the most relevant portion of the asset of the corporation. There is need to prevents the welfare of the workers. This will includes in insight of their general performance given the situation existing in the oil corporation.
Consequently, in the research intend to find out to what extent the employee in the co-operation are motivate and its impart on their performance.
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The study will generally attempt to contribute to solution of motivation in the Nigeria petroleum co-operation but specifically.
To ascertain whether the supervisory style has any effect on motivates staff achieves success in the absenc3e of good plan or effective organization structure.
To find out whether motivation can lead to organizational effectiveness in NNPC.
To offer suggestion on how to use motivational tools on NNPC workers to achieve greater outputs.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS.
Research process can be viewed as a four-level hierarchy of questions. However, in general a term, when mention is made of research question what comes to mind is a reflection of the general purpose of the research. They are question asked in order to locate answers to the research problems. They convert the research problem into question in specifics, thereby making them variable.
However, research problems dissolve into research questions, which are in turn converted into hypothesis for testing and providing answers to the problems, for example.
Does manager’s supervisory style affect employee’s attitude to work positively significantly.
What are the positive and significant relationship between motivation of workers and increased performance in the public sector
How the level of competence of managers of performing their duties in NNPC.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
It is expected that this will help Nigeria national petroleum in co-operation in no small measure in providing possible solution to its motivation problems.
Academically, this study constitutes a contribution in the field of public administration especially as its studies motivation and performance in the public sector.
It will help the feature researchers who will like to carry out a researcher in motivation for further consultation of performance and motivation. The study gives the researchers the opportunity to known more about NNPC
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