THE CONTROL OF INFLATION USING CENTRAL BANK OF NIGERIA (CBN) MONETARY POLICY
Through the instrument used in monetary policy help us by the control of inflation in an economy. This to know the control of inflation using central bank of Nigeria monetary policy.
Hence, this research work was focused on the investigation of the control of inflation by using central bank of Nigeria monetary policy. In carrying out this study, various research instruments such as questionnaires and oral interviews were used to collect data from respondents.
The research design and methodology secondary data was collected from central bank of Nigeria bullion. Location of data and this was stated in chapter three (3) of the research work from the data collected and stated it was found out that of the control of inflation using CBN monetary policy.
The government should establish firms in the economy to reduce the rate of inflation and opening market operation. Recommendations were made in chapter five shows that in order to prevent through currency devaluation, Nigerians should use in manufacturing capacity labour and skill to take advantage of export opportunity that are created in international market.
The introduction of the structural adjustment programme (SAP), in Nigeria had with it seen the need for efficient and effective management of a firm’s scarce resource, and for this to be effective.
The basic objective studied under this topic is to evaluate the study of the control of inflation using central bank monetary policy. This study has been structured into five chapters make it easy reading and understanding.
Chapter one dealt with the background of the prevailing circumstance in the control of inflation using central bank monetary policy to give perception (insight) of environmental factor, which guide the control of inflation behaviour in using central bank of Nigeria monetary policy and to determine the relative importance and impact of specific aspect of environmental factor on the control of inflation using CBN monetary policy.
From this, other from chapter derived that base from chapter one in order to findings recommendation and conclusion. Certain problem were stated the relevant importance to the environmental factor to the control of inflation using CBN monetary policy.
In view of the findings above recommendation has been made to stimulate academic research interest in the aspect of the control of inflation. However, it would not be worthy to mention here that the trend in the CBN monetary policy has been a welcome and rewarding development in a financial system.
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research question
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
2.0 Meaning of inflation
2.1 Various rate of inflation
2.2 Types and causes of inflation
2.3 Effects of inflation in the economy
2.4 Meaning of monetary policy
2.5 Objectives of monetary policy
2.6 Instrument of monetary policy
2.7 Limitations of monetary policy
2.8 Inflation control through use of monetary policy
3.0 Research design and methodology
3.1 Sources of data
3.2 Secondary data
3.3 Location of data
3.4 Method of data collection
4.0 Findings and summary
5.0 Conclusion and recommendation
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
After an appreciated economic performance in the early 1970s, the Nigerian economy experienced serious economic problems from late 1970s to mid 1980s the country’s balance of payment came under severe pressure and was in persistent deficit during the period. the government’s current expenditure expanded without an appreciable increase in revenue, leading to widening fiscal deficits, which were largely financial with bank credit with adverse consequences on the general price level. The inflationary pressure further appreciated by high demand of imports and both intermediate inputs and consumer goods due to over valuation of the naira, which made imports relatively larger than locally manufactured good, (Ahmed, 1992).
In addressing the crisis, a number of policy measures regularly demand government embarked upon management. In April 1982, the federal government enacted the economic stabilization measured, which dealt extensively on import restriction as well as monetary and fiscal policies. The effectiveness of this measures were constrained by the continued decline in foreign exchange earnings, the over valuation of naira and other distortions and liquidities in the economy, (Ahmed, 1992).
As the demand pressure movement at the inter-foreign exchange market (IFEM), the exchange rate of the naira came under renewed pressured in spite of CBN’s determination to fund the growing demand for foreign exchange. The naira cost 1% of its face value in February 2002 dropping from
N11396 to N114, 75 per dollar at the official market in the parallel market, it cost 2.3% of its value as depreciates from N135.52 to N138.68 per dollar. This was an indication that inflation rat is on the increase (Yansi, 2002).
This study is being carried out to know the different CBN credit instruments and their effectiveness in inflationary control.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This research project is designed to investigate inflation control through the use of monetary policy. There have been various efforts by the government to combat inflation in the country. But in spite of all these efforts being made, inflation is said to be alarming in the country. Nigerian industries as well as individuals are groaning under the crusting effect of inflation. What the causes of the phenomenon, what measures are taken so far to combat the situation, are credit instrument of CBN effective or ineffective in controlling inflation? (Ozo, et al 1999).
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1. To find out whether currency devaluation is a cause of inflation.
2. To find out the extent to which inflation has effected the economy.
3. To determine the effectiveness of open market operations as a tool for inflation control.
4. To identify the adverse effect of inflation on economic growth.
5. To recommend measures for effective control of inflation through monetary measures.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
1. Is currency devaluation a cause of inflation?
2. To what extent has inflation affected the economy?
3. What is the effectiveness of open market operation as a tool for inflation control?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is very timely, today that inflation trends is at an alarming rate in Nigerian economy. This study will be of immense benefit to the government and experts and students to determine the extent of the effect now of CBN monetary policy as a tool of inflation control. In addition, the study will determine the facts or problem limiting the effectiveness of these instruments. It is expected that the findings will help to bridge any gap that may exist and to make this instruments effective in inflation control (Ozo et al 1999).
The government achieved its objectives in economic growth and stability through inflation control we will help the government to know whether to pump money into the economy or not.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
This is defined as a significant and sustained increase in the general price level (Nwabah, 1995). It is also an increase in the volume of money and credit relative to available goods and services resulting in a sustained and continuing rise in the general price level, (Orjih, 1996).
ii. MONETARY/CREDIT POLICY
This can be defined as any consigns action undertaken by the monetary authorities to change the volume, quantity, availability, cost and direction of money and credit in an economy. it can also be defined as the credit control measures adopted by control bodies to control the supply of general economic policy, (Orjih, 1996).
iii. CREDIT INSTRUMENT
These are instrument of monetary policy, they include open market operations, legal reserve ratio, bank rate, liquidity ratio, moral suation, directives, etc (Orjih, 1996).
iv. CENTRAL BANK OF NIGERIA
This may be defined as an apex financial institution, which is charged with the responsibility of managing the cost volume, availability and direction of money and credit in Nigerian economy with a view to achieving some desired economic objective (Orjih, 1996).
This is to check, deduct, remedy or combat (Hornby, 1974).
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