(Banking and Finance)





This work “Evaluating the impact of Bank Distress on the profit growth of Deposit Money Banks. The causes of bank distress in Nigeria and the possible prevention strategies or failure resolution options of bank distress. The review of related literature was done to give an in depth knowledge of the topic to the researchers. Both primary and secondary sources of data were used by the researchers.  Simple statistical tools like T-test, least square (B) and tables were used to analyze the data collected. The following findings were made; Banks made lower profit during distress period and higher profit during distress period and higher profit after distress period. Meanwhile, banks generally made lower profit during distress period. 1 recommended that the supervisory arsenals to ensure minimum distress with little or no effect when it occurs.



CHAPTER  1: INTRODUCTION                                                                                    

Background of the study                                                                                   

Statement of the problem                                                                              

Purpose/Objectives of the study                                                                    

Research Questions                                                                            

Research Hypothesis                                                                          

Significance of the Study                                                                              

Scope, Limitations and Delimitations                                                

Definitions of Terms                                                              

CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE                                 

Definition of Distress in Banking Industry                                       

Symptoms of Distressed Banks in Nigeria                                        

Causes of Banking Distress                                                               

Capital Inadequacy                                                                            

Inept Management                                                                                         

Ownership Structure/Political                                                                      

   Interference in Management of Banks                                                 

Distress Management and Failure Resolution Option                       

The Role of Banks in an Economic System                                       


Research Design                                                                                            

Area of Study                                                                                    


Sample and Sampling Techniques                                                     

Instruments of Data Collection                                                                     

Methods of Data Presentation                                                                       

Methods of Data Analysis                                                                 

CHAPTER 4: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS                             

Graphical Illustration of Banks Profit                                                     










Background of the Study

            In any modern economy, the efficient production and exchange of goods and services requires money and bank is the instrument for affecting it. The last few years have been both traumatic and revolutionary for the banking industry. The industry produced the largest number of technically insolvent and under capitalized banks. The magnitude of distress in the nation’s banking industry reached on unprecedented level making it an issue of concern to the government, the regulatory authority, the bankers and the general public.

            The Nigeria banking scene was characterized by changes designed to promote banking in the country. The changes may be categorized into phases, but due to the nature of our work we will consider two phases: namely, the era of laissez-fair banking (1894-1952), the era of limited banking regulator (1952-1958). During the first phase, banking industry was monopolized by foreign banks, principally the African banking corporation which was the precursor of the (BBWA) British Bank for West African the present First Bank of Nigeria the Barclays bank DCO (Dominion Colonial and Overseas) the present day Union banks, and the British an French Bank, the for-runner of the present United Bank for Africa. Although discrimination against Nigerians by these banks led to the establishment of some indigenous banks which unfortunately offers litter or no competition to the foreign banks essentially because of their weak capital base or poor managerial capacity. Consequently, all but three of the indigenous banks failed. The survived includes the National Bank of Nigeria established in 1933, the Agbomagbe Bank (now Wema Bank) established 1945 and the Africa Continental Bank 1947.

            A commission of inquiry headed by G.D. patron set up in 1948 to investigate the business of banking in Nigeria. Their report led to the enactment of the first banking legislation in Nigeria, the banking ordinance of 1952. The 1952 ordinance laid down the standard and procedure for the conduct of banking business by prescribing the mandatory minimum capital requirement for banks both expatiates and indigenous banks at the tune of ∑100,000 and ∑12,500 respectively and it also introduced regulations to check bank failure. However, the entire indigenous bank established in the country during this period also all failed. The bank failures of this era were attributed largely to the monopolistic structure of the banking industry, which allowed the foreign banks to enjoy exclusive patronage from British firms. The indigenous banks that survived was able to make it because of the support they got from their state government.

            The distress phenomenon in Nigeria banking industry is of recent origin. The manifestation became discernable with some policy shocks starting in 1988 with the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) directive to banks that naira backing for foreign exchange application be lodged with CBN. Thus was followed in 1989 by another directive requiring public sector deposits to be transferred to CBN. These two directives exposed the precious liquidity position of some banks and the distress they have subterraneous harbored. What was thought to be a temporary liquidity problem for few banks soon caught up with  a lot more banks.

It is important to stress in this work that banking system was already in distress by the time NDIC was established. By them, about 7 (seven) banks were known to be technically insolvent. The government at that time, did not embark upon a clearing exercise that would have removed from the system that distressed institutions because it was feared that such an action would lead to loss of public confidence and flight of foreign capital more so there was no deposit insurance institution to expeditiously manage such bank closures. The NDIC was nevertheless required to insure all banks. That means that the corporation has been involved in managing distressed banks even before it could settle down and minister enough resources for this important task.

The intermediating role of banks and their relevance both in the transmission of monetary policies and in the payment system underscore their importance as well as the problem that bank distress at the prevailing dimension in our economy could precipitate. Arising from their intermediation banks generate financial resources ad put these at the disposal of deficit economic growth in the form of increased employment of otherwise idle resources and this in  turn leads to increase output. Therefore, an industry wide insolvency of banks, such as the one experienced in Nigeria, should be expected to retard the economy’s rate of capital formation, reduce its level of employment and output, and ultimately the pace of economic growth.


Statement of the Problem

            A serious problem posed by widespred distress among banks is the threat to banking habit and the development of an efficient payment mechanism. The loss of confidence, the after math of the distress that hit the banking sector forced several business to take ferver risks by taking back their fund to well established safe havens dominated by older generation banks.

            This research wok is therefore concerned with “Evaluating the impact of bank distress on the profit growth existing of commercial banks. Using ( A vase study of selected Commercial banks).

Purpose of the Study

            The main purpose/objective of this study is to have an overview of the effect of bank distress on the profit growth of commercial banks. Investigate into the reasons for bank failure in Nigeria.

            Other objectives include:

1.                  To evaluate the causes of bank distress in Nigeria. To find out the impact.

2.                  To find out the possible prevention strategies or failure resolution options of bank distress.

Significance of the Study

            This research project will be of importance of the following persons –

1.                  New generation banks, which may wish to know the implication of banks distress in the banking industry and how to restore the confidence of the customers and uphold efficient payment mechanism.

2.                  Nigeria deposit Insurance Corporation: The work could be of immense help to NDIC in the area of distress management and prevention strategies. And also in the area of failure resolution option in banking industry.

3.                  Students who may wish to know the extent of distress in the banking industry and the trend of distress as it affect the modern banking will also benefit from this work.

Scope of the Study

            While the banking impact distress in Nigeria will theoretically serve as the population of study. The project is designed to appraise the impact of bank distress on the profit growth of Union Bank of Nigeria Plc, First Bank of Nigeria, United Bank for Africa and Guarantee Trust Bank. It will also analyse the trend of these banks profit within a period of 10 years (1992-2001).

Research Questions

(1)               What are the causes of bank distress?

(2)               What is the impact of bank distress?

(3)               What is the profit growth rate of existing commercial bank during distress.

(4)               What are the effects of bank distress?

(5)               What are the possible solution options to this phenomenon in the banking scene?

Research Hypothesis

H1:      Distress has no effect on the average profit of commercial


Ho:      Distress has effect on the average profit of commercial


Definition of Terms

What is Distress? It can be defined as an extreme suffering caused by lack of money or a state of danger, calamity and misfortunate acute poverty.

What is an Evaluation? This can also be defined as form of idea or judgment of something and also to work out something in numerical value.

What is Impact? This can be define as a strong effect or impression to bank. It is also a situation whereby something will be to be press closely or firmly together.



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