ACCOUNTING PROCEDURE IN HOTEL
(A CASE STUDY OF ZODIAC HOTELS LIMITED)
This project topic on accounting procedure in Hotels under a case study of (Zodiac Hotel Enugu, Nigeria Limited) will be discussed under five consecution chapters for clarity purpose>
Accounting system is essential in every business sectors which hotels is not a exceptional due to the impentent it is our economy (Nigeria).
There are basic procedures which are needed to be applied in hotel activities, so as to determine there is profit or loss.
The introductory aspects of the project will cover the chapter one which includes the background of the study, statement of the problem, research questions, objectives of the study, definition of terms and significance of the study as well. Statement of the problems has to with the existing phenomenon in the hotel which may either be favourable or unfavourble.
Chapter two deals with review of related like nature. Literature review will enable the researcher to consult other documentations that are relevant to accounting procedures in hotel which include the accounting concepts, business entity concepts, the money measurement concept and dual aspect concept with other information that the researcher will develop on his own.
Research methodology as chapter three, the researcher methodology has to do with the procedures in which the researcher will adopt in other to information form the respondent. A method of data collection includes research questionnaire, oral interview and observation.
Furthermore, sampling method will adopted so as to represent the whole population of the study. The researcher will also determine, the sampling size as well as the source of data (primary and secondary data).
Chapter four as data presentation and data analysis whereby the researcher will present all the information on a tabular form with percentage and frequency column. All the individual response will be presented, the table and by analyses each of their individual perception.
Finally, the chapter five as the summary of findings, recommendation and conclusion. The summary of findings will be gathered based on the information sources on the chapter under data presentation and analysis. In addition, recommendation will be prepared to Zodiac Hotel on accounting procedure which will be adopted thereby procedure with conclusion which the researcher will adopt.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.5 Scope and limitation of the Study
1.6 Research Questions
1.7 Research Hypothesis
1.8 Definition of Terms
2.0 Review of Related Literature
2.1.1 Business Entity Concept
2.1.2 Dual aspect concept
2.1.3 Historical Cost Concept
2.1.4 Going Concern Concept
2.1.5 Money Measurement Concept
2.1.6 Historical Cost Concept
2.1.7 The Realisation Concept
2.1.8 The Accrual Concept
2.1.9 Accounting Conventions
2.2.3 Organization of Account
2.4 Accounting Procedure
2.7 Cash Receipts and Payment
2.8 Stock Control
2.9 Sales Income
2.10 Preparation and Payment of salaries
2.11 Financial Reports and Statements
2.12 The General Ledger
3.0 Research Design and Methodology
3.2 Area of Study
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling Method
3.5 Research Instrumentation
3.6 Validity and Reliability of Research Instruments
3.7 Source of Data
3.8 Method of Investigation
3.6 Source of data
3.7 Nature of data analysis
4.0 Data presentation and analysis
4.2 Hypothesis testing
5.0 Summary of findings
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The practice of accounting came into existence many years ago though, there was no acceptable definite record as to when accounting developed. It should be noted that with the advent of colonial rule in Africa, the European system of accounting was introduced in most of the African countries such as Nigeria. Then, different kinds of people were employed to take care of farms and properties of the Whitman and after that, they have to account for their success so far to their masters because there is a saying that “for every responsibility, there is a saying that “for every responsible, there is always an accountability”.
So if the origin of accounting system is to be trace, if should start from the time people started giving accounts they used in those days cannot be or is not the same as the method we use in this our modern days but can be seen as a base for the modern days account system.
Many definitions have been put forward by various authors of the subject and all seems to have the same meaning. One of such definitions is that by the American Accounting Association which defined Accounting as “a process of identifying, measuring and communicating economic information to permit informed judgements and decisions by the users of such.
However, the definition could be extended by seeing accounting as “the art of recording, classifying and summarizing, analysing, interpreting and reporting on the financial transactions and position of an organization to interested persons”. From the definition, it can be observed that all accounting activities involve the use of documentation.
Companies, organizations, institutions and other establishments require the services of accounting information to understand what is going on n the numerous branches, to educate the effectiveness of companies policies on operation and impact of government’s fiscal and monetary instruments.
Accounting information also helps potential investors to put their investments into optimal uses by providing adequate feasibility reports to guide would be investors.
Now, let us look at the need for accounting information in an organization like Hotels, you will find out that it helps in revealing the amount of profit or loss made and it also determines the true financial position of the hotel.
Accounting information also helps in dealing on the type of labour to be acquired and the amount to be paid to labourers as their salaries and wages. It also helps in providing a guide to future policy. This then leads to the necessity for accounting as underlined by the existence of an accounting department in any organization.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This research study entitled “Accounting procedures in Hotels will try to look into the nature, process, system by which various hotels in Enugu state operate will use of accounting systems and techniques taking a case study of ZODIAC HOTELS LIMITED ENUG.
As we all know that accounting is a living, practical course, there is need to know the present practices of the profession in such areas, among other as.
1. Working capital management
2. Preparation and payment of salaries and wages
3. Books of accounts
4. Sales income
5. Financial report and statements
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
I have particularly involved myself in the operation of a hotel. Sit is known that the researcher’s particular interest in hotel administration can not be over emphasized.
The purpose or objective of this of this research work is as follows.
i. To examine the forms they (Zodiac Hotels Limit Enugu) take in presenting their transactions with other parties.
ii. To determine the accounting system by which the hotel operates in terms of the “accounting concepts and conventions.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
I promised that at the completion of this projects, it will helps others who have not been opportune which the hotels use.
For the future researchers, the work will be useful and helpful to them because they can make reference to it as they carry out their own work. It is worthy of note that presently; the researchers work load is lessened because of the guidelines on this topic that was made available for him.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is accounting?
2. What are the duties and right of an accounting to achieve his responsibilities?
3. What is the role of accounting in an existing business organization (say Hotel)?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Ho: The accounting procedure in most hotels is inadequate
HA: The accounting procedure in most hotels is adequat
Ho: The accounting procedure used by Hotels does not affect the financial statement of the hotels
HA: The accounting procedure used by hotels affects the financial statement of the hotels.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The art of recording, classifying and summarizing in a significant manner and in terms of money, transactions and events which are in part at least, of a financial character, and interpreting the results there to
Anything which is acquired by a business entity either for a long-term use within the company for the generation of income or for short term/run used for the purpose of conversion into cash within a year.
The excess of the selling price over all cost and expenses incurred in marketing the sale
A summary of figure, facts showing the financial condition of a business entity or enter price at a given period of time or at the end of the year, usually thirty first (31st) December.
2.1 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Ac TERMS AND CONDITIONS
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1. As a source for additional understanding of the subject
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4. Direct citing (if referenced properly)
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