ABUSE AND CARE OF THE ELDERLY IN UGHA COMMUNITY, EDO STATE, NIGERIA

  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:94
  • Methodology:Simple Percentage
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Sociology)
ABUSE AND CARE OF THE ELDERLY IN UGHA COMMUNITY, EDO STATE, NIGERIA
ABSTRACT

 The broad objective of this study is to understand the challenges confronting the elderly in Ugha Community in Uhuwonde Local Government Area of Edo State, to investigate the challenges facing the aged who are currently under pension scheme, to ascertain the form of social security available for the elderly population in Ugha community, to ascertain the challenges facing the aged who are currently under pension scheme, to suggest solutions to the challenges facing the aged in the community, and the country at large, the instrument for data collection was the  structured questionnaire. In analyzing the structured questionnaire, the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 22) was used. Simple frequency, percentage, charts and graph on some of the variables was generated in this study while content analysis method was also used in analyzing the in-depth interviews conducted.
The researcher was able to deduce from the study that there was evidence of domestic maltreatment of elderly person in  Ugha community. However, most of the abuse and care were caused mostly by the financial and social status of both the elderly person and their supporting relatives.
It was discovered that what the elderly person really need are not material needs most times but emotional needs and they need their love ones around them always. It was discovered that modernization and globalization has really play a key role in the issue of elderly abuse and care, i.e. the cluster of the extended family unit as it were is no longer in existence. Poverty, low income, unemployment of relatives who supposed to be caregivers to the elderly has also contributed to neglect and abuse of the elderly.
TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE
1.1 Background of the study    -    -    
1.2 Statement of the  problem    -    -    -
1.3 Objective of the study    -    -    -
1.4  Research questions    -    -
1.5 Significance of the study    -    -    
CHAPTER TWO
2.1 Introduction    -    -    -    
2.2 Review of relevant theory    -    -    -
2.3 Theoretical framework    -    -    
2.4 Hypotheses    -    -    
CHAPTER THREE
3.1 Research Design    -    -    
3.2 The population of the study    -
3.3 Sample size and sampling design    -    -
3.4 Instrument of data collection     -    
3.5 Method of data collection    -    -    
3.6 Method of data analysis     -
CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 Presentation and data analysis    -
CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 Summary of research findings    
5.2 Conclusion     -    -    -    -    -
5.3 Recommendation    -    -    -    -
References    -    -    -    -
Questionnaire    -
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1    Background of the Study
Individuals begin their ageing process at the moment of birth, and go through the life course accumulating a range of experiences that may positively or negatively affect their capabilities and wellbeing in later years (Aquilino, 1990). It was revealed in (Wahab, 2013) that ageing is expensive and government in many developing nations is afraid of the costs of maintaining the increasing population of the elderly. Older people are a valuable asset to society, contributing in many ways (economically, socially, intellectually and otherwise,) to the progress of the society (. Unfortunately, in many societies older people have been left out at perpetual risk and uncared for. The aged is, therefore, deprived of smartness, promptness, dynamism, and confidence, which were basic personality features of youth and adulthood. Furthermore, the optimistic outlook of the aged gradually turns into pessimism.
Elderly people in Nigeria suffer a lot of economic and social hardship in an increasingly hostile, competitive and intolerant society. Older people constitute one of the poorest groups in Nigerian society and aging in Nigeria constitutes a painful process attended by poor health, poverty and helplessness (Asagba, 2005). Older people rightly deserve the much needed care and support backed up by programme and policies that will enable them have control over their own live delays (Eldward& Miller 2003:Banks, 2004). Fortunately aging is gradually becoming a global phenomenon and undeniably receiving urgently policy definition by government of developed nations where it has reflected in the government’s vital document of economic and social development strategy (Okoye, 2014).
    Compared with the situation of elderly persons in developed countries, the living profile of the aged population in developing countries is not well understood, due to the paucity of necessary . Although an increasing number of surveys of the elderly have recentlybeen conducted in various developing countries, information gathered is fragmentary and also insufficient to fully understand the status gathered from these surveys. The findings do not report the challenges confronting the elderly and the nature of problems facing them (Wahab, 2013). As the level of economic development advances, the pattern of allocation of support changes from informal to  formal support (Cowgil& Holmes, 1972; Wahab, 2013). Social change in a society affects the lifestyle of the elderly in one way or the other and the traditional respect given to the elderly person in the contemporary society is on the decline (Russell, 2003; Ushasnee, 2004).
The elderly population in most societies is increasing, due to a number of interrelated factors. There has been an exceptional increase in world population in the 20th and 21st centuries in contrast to previous centuries (U.S. Department of Commerce 2007; Sachs 2014). There has also been a decline in infant and childhood mortality; discoveries in the field of medicine prolonging lifespan; increase in the average life-expectancy; declining fertility and increasing longevity have favoured elderly population in the society (Oluwabamide&Eghafona, 2012).
In many countries in the western world, there have been established formal institutions such as older people’s home put in place to care for the elderly. However in the conventional African setting, informal caregiver was the norm. Formal institutions were very few or non-existent, such as those set up by the Catholic social centres, brought in by foreigners. Informal caregiving emerged as a key figure in the promotion of quality of life in a situation of dependence. Informal care was always available in the traditional nuclear and extended family system with the philosophy of communalism, hence, care was provided for babies, young children and elderly in the family and society (Oluwabamide&Eghafona, 2011)
However, with globalization and industrialization changes have emerged. According toOluwabamide(Oluwabamide&Eghafona, 2011) the traditional institution responsible for care-giving is being dismantled. This institution, which is the extended family, is being disintegrated. Consequently, the ageing population is now facing a number of problems. It was further emphasized in Emovon et al, 2007, that the proves of industrialization, colonialism, urbanization and westernization with its attendant effects of change in living arrangements, urban migration, reduction in family size due to economic reasons have combined to make old aged unpleasant, contrary to the past.
    Decades ago, the elderly in the African societies were said to faced little or no challenges because within the African cultures, adequate care and respect for the elderly was part of  the culture (Oluwabamide&Eghafona, 2011). It has further emphasized that the care of older people within their families in Africa was guaranteed until  the intervention of colonial rule, modernization, urbanization and industrialization. The extended family system practiced by most African societies enhanced collective care for the aged. But since 1990s to 2000 upwards the elderly persons are at higher risk, unfortunately, Nigeria government does not provide social security for the elderly and the support from the family are fading out. Therefore,the well-being of the elderly is been compromised (Adebowale, Atter&Ayeni, 2012)
1.2    Statement of the Problem
In many western countries, formal social security is an important policy instrument for governments to redistribute wealth, combat poverty, and reduce inequalities between various segments of society. But in Sub-Saharah Africa including Nigeria, current social security schemes are extremely marginal both in terms of percentage of the labor force that is covered and the size of pension that are received. In most Sub-saharan African settings, national social insurance schemes cover less than 5% of the labor force and expend less than 1.5% of their gross domestic product on pensions (Fox & Palmer, 2014). Consequently, in the majority of countries in Sub-Saharan African including Nigeria, social protection programs for older people in Sub-Saharan African are occupational pension schemes, but these typically cover  only people who have worked in the public sector, in state enterprises, or in large private firms in the modern sector. The self-employed, workers in the informal sector, domestic workers, and the vast majority of the population living in rural areas and engaged in subsistence agriculture or other forms of subsistence living, majority of this group are excluded from formal social security schemes and must rely on their families for support and  protection when they can no longer work (National Academic  Press, 2006).
     Nigeria’ economy is the most viable in Africa. Unfortunately, Nigeria is currently one of the countries in Sub –Saharan Africa with a large percentage of the aged without any firm of social protection. However, the high rate of unemployment and the poor state of infrastructural facilities obstruct the activities of the elderly which within the existing condition expose them to more danger and untimely death. The elderly have contributed to the economy and the society at large and this is an important  stage of their life that should never be ignore, yet there is no formal social security programme to cater for this large population of the aged. Caring for the elderly introduces many problems that are very similar in most developing countries including Nigeria. The conditions under which informal and formal supports are delivered to the elderly may have a major influence on the social and economic security of the pattern of care for the elderly.
This social exclusion has led to increase in challenges confronting this group as they are left to go through Phases of life that hinder smooth aging and the elderly are face with unwholesome challenges which include poverty, isolation, poor nutrition, poor quality health care, poor housing, hunger, inadequate domestic supports and other social services that will enhance smooth aging. These challenges call for adjustment. Adjusting to these and other changes is the central challenge in the social world of the elderly, as they may discover they can no longer cope on their own and have to rely on other people for care and support. Having to rely on caregivers for care and support introduces a new dimension to the social problems of the elderly (Akpan&Umobong, 2013).
Moreso, social and economic security of the elderly is an issue that has not generated the desired research interest for policy makers and administrators in Nigeria as elsewhere in Africa (Wahab, 2013) Compare to the industrialized countries where there are many studies on practically every aspect of social and economic security of the elderly, including; studies on the demographic, economic and social implications of old age (Tout, 1989). Indeed, the developming countries, such as Nigeria, not many systematic empirical studies have been done to examine the situation confronting the elderly concretely. Consequently, there is a dearth of published materials on the social and economic security of the elderly in Nigeria (Wahab, 2013). The present imperative is that societies must respond to the extraordinary potential and range of variability in individual ageing, and seize the opportunity to rethink our notion of limits and recognize the far-reaching benefit societies stand to gain from the continuing contribution to the wellbeing of the elderly (John, 2000).
     The standard of living for the elderly was based on reciprocity, but since the 1990s to 2000 upwards, the elderly persons are at higher risk. Previous studies have indicated that the Nigeria government does not provide social security to the elderly and the supports from the family are fading out, therefore the wellbeing of the elderly is been compromise (Adewale, 2012).
    The effect of increasing diseases and dependence of the older persons is burdensome on the caregiver for both formal and informal caregivers. The needs and opinions of older persons should be integrated into shaping of health policy. Ensuring enabling and supportive environments, urges recommendations for improved housing and living environments of older persons, promoting a positive view of ageing and enhancing public awareness of the important contributions of older persons.
    The inability of government to promote gender equality, protect and promote human rights has created discrimination such as aged discrimination, recognizing the value of older females in the home and societies at large. Culturally, some individuals see the older persons especially the female folks as witches responsible for some of their misfortune in life and in turn, they subject them to abject poverty through total deprivation of basic amenities leaving them to die under harsh condition, hence some of them are forced to go out to look for food inside the dustbins or market places because of hunger and lack of care. This may allow onlookers and passerby to see these elderly as people with mental impairment. Thereby reducing the amount of care rendered or given to them. (Oluwabamide&Eghafona, 2012).
1.3    Objective of the Study
     The broad objective of this study is to understand the challenges confronting the elderly in Ugha Community in Uhuwonde Local Government Area of Edo State.
To investigate the challenges facing the aged who are currently underpension scheme.
To ascertain the form of social security available for the elderly population in Ugha community.
To ascertain the challenges facing the aged who are currently under pension scheme.
To suggest solutions to the challenges facing the aged in the community,and the country at large.
1.4    Research Questions
What are the challenges facing the elderly in Ugha community?
What are the forms of social security supporting the elderly in the community?
What are  the specific challenge of the aged pensioners in the community?
How can the aged in the community be supported to live meaningfully in the community?
1.5    Significance of the Study
     The practical implication of this study and the findings can be used to inform policy makers and administrators to know the challenges confronting the elderly population in Nigeria and the need to respond through effective policy formulating and implementation. It would also contribute to the call for policy intervention that will protect the elderly without any institutionalized social support and ameliorate the sufferings of the aged pensioners.
    This study will be of great significant to the extant body of knowledge to academic, practicing social workers in both public and private sector and it will build on the existing knowledge and fill the existing vacuum in data on the elderly in Ugha community in Edo State

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Project Details

Department Sociology
Project ID SOC0068
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 94 Pages
Methodology Simple Percentage
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Project Details

    Department Sociology
    Project ID SOC0068
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 94 Pages
    Methodology Simple Percentage
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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