EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE
The purpose of this study was to investigate emotional intelligence and organizational performance. The objective of the study to examines the influence of emotional intelligence, organizational citizenship behaviour, environmental factors and job satisfaction on organizational performance.
This study adopted a survey research instrument through the administration of questionnaires to non-academic staff of University of Benin, Nigeria. The data for the study were analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics, Cronbach Alpha test, Pearson correlation, multiple least square regression and Heteroskedasticity diagnostic test.
The empirical results showed that interaction between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behaviour had a significant negative influence on organizational performance at 1% level of significance, environmental factors had a significant negative influence on organizational performance at 1% level of significance and job satisfaction had a significant positive influence on organizational performance at 1% level of significance. The therefore recommended that that management poorly organizational citizenship behaviour would negatively influence organizational performance. The study also recommended that management should always satisfy the needs of the workers because it significantly enhances organizational performance.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTROUDCTION
Background to the Study - - - -
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem - - -
1.3 Research Questions - - - - -
1.4 Objectives of the Study - - -
1.5 Significance of the Study - - -
1.6 Scope of the Study - - - -
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction - - - - -
2.2 Meaning of Organizational Performance - -
2.2.1 Measurement of Organizational Performance -
2.3 Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Performance -
2.3.1 Organizational Citizens Behaviour and Organizational Performance-
2.3.2 Environmental Factors and Organizational Performance -
2.3.3 Job Satisfaction and Organizational Performance- - -
2.4 Theoretical Framework - - - -
2.4.1 The Mayer and Salovey Model of Emotional Intelligence -
2.4.2 Resources-Based Theory - - - -
2.4.3 Goals Setting Theory - - - -
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
Introduction - - - - -
Research Design - - - -
Population and Sampling Techniques - - -
Operationalizaton and Measurement of Variables
Research Instrument - -
Sources of Data - - - -
Method of Data Analysis - -
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSES AND INTERPRETATION
Introduction - - - -
Data presentation and Analysis for sample background Variables
Data Presentation and Analysis for the Variables -
4.3.1 Reliability Test - - - -
4.3.2 Pearson Correlation Matrix - - - -
4.3.3 Multiple Regression Result - - -
Discussion of findings - - -
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMEDATIONS
Introduction - - - -
Summary of Findings - - - -
Contribution to Knowledge - - -
Conclusion - - - -
Policy Recommendations and Implication - - -
REFERENCES - - - - - -
APPENDIX I - - - - - -
APPENDIX II - - -
LIST OF TABLES
Table 4.2: Demography of Respondent- -
Table 4.3.1: Reliability Test - -
Table 4.3.2: Pearson Correlation Result - - -
Table 4.3.3A: Multiple Regression Results - - -
Table 4.3.3B: Interaction Regression Results - -
1.1 Background to the Study
Emotional intelligence is a psychological and behavioural principle employed to understand and assess people’s behaviours and attitudes, management styles and quality, interpersonalskills, and capacity in carrying out their assign roles and responsibilities (Zintz, 2013). Emotional intelligence is a human resource management tools use for the planning and management of organizational human resources with regards to job recruitment, interviewing and selection,management development, customer relations, customer service and organizational performance (Bharwaney, Baron &Mackinlay, 2011). Mayer, Salovey and Caruso (2000) are of the view that emotional intelligence is the capability to perceive and express emotional feeling towards understanding and regulating the activities of the organization for improved organizational performance.
In other words, emotional intelligence is the tendency for recognizing individual feelings and emotions of others forself motivation in relationship to others within the immediate and competitive business environment (Goleman, 1998, Mahmood, Samaneh&Afeteh, 2012). Therefore, the tendency to promote the activities of organization to attract, develop, motivate and maintain a high performance workforce, human resources management marked with personnel management which applied operational techniques (Armstrong, 2006). In addition, management is a process of setting organizational goal and deciding what action and resources to contribute in terms of coordinating, guiding and encouraging the cooperative work of other people to meet the goals and objectives of the organization. That is, human resource management is the organization and mobilization for the achievement of identified objectives in the organization (Khan, 2010).
Oriarewo, Agbim and Zever (2014) study on emotional intelligence and performance in some selected hospitality industry in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. They found that emotional intelligence has a significant influence on entrepreneurial performance. The idea of organizational performance is hanged on the position or premise that it is a combination of productive assets made up of human, physical, and capital resources, for the major reason of fulfilling a dream, vision or accomplishing a shared purpose (Carton & Hofer, 2006). Organizational performance is also viewed as the measure of how a manager utilizes the resources of the organization efficiently and effectively to accomplish the goals of the organization as well as satisfying all the stakeholders (Richard, Jones & George, 2009).
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
The emotional intelligence of the individual employee plays a key role in organizational performance. Organizational performance in the era of globalization depends on the quality of human capital accessibility for the attainment of long term corporate goals. Human resource is the fundamental factor of production and labour outcome (Khan, 2010). Human resource is the outcome for effective and efficiency of employees which is an ingredient of emotional intelligence (Khan, 2010).The challenge is to ensure that organizations have capability to find, assimilate, compensate and retain human resources in the shape of talented individuals they need who can drive a global organization that is both responsive to its customers and the burgeoning opportunities of technology (Armstrong,2006).
The employees that possess greater emotional intelligence have the ability of using their emotional intelligence skills to achieve positive change given the level of personal morale and the morale of others for better organizational performance and job satisfaction (Shimazu, Shimazu&Odahara, 2004). Meanwhile, in organizational settings, there is social interaction between one another in the pursuance of the organizational goals and objectives (Yao, 2009). Therefore, the interactionbetween customers, suppliers, employees and employersare based on emotions and behaviours. On the contrary, an employee that has a low level of emotional intelligence lacks the feelings of his/her colleagues and managers and proper evaluation of their working role to achievehigher performance. Based on the foregoing, the study looked at the emotions, attitude and behaviour of employees and other and how these interactions can yield positive returns to the organization. The study intended to fill the gap by at emotional intelligence and organizational performance in the educational institution in Nigeria using the University of Benin as our sample area. The study added to the body of knowledge by adopting a survey research design through the administration of structured questionnaire to measure emotional intelligence variables and organizational performance.
1.3 Research Questions
Based on the research problem of the study stated above, the study will examine the following research questions:
(i) to what extent does emotional intelligence affects organizational performance?
(ii) to what extent does organizational citizens behaviour affects organizational performance?
(iii) to what extent does environmental factors affect organizational performance?
(iv) to what extent does job satisfaction affects organizational performance?
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The broad objective of this study is to investigate emotional intelligence and organizational performance. Therefore, the specific objectives are as follows:
(i) toinvestigate the impact of emotional intelligenceon organizational performance.
(ii) todetermine the impact of organizational citizens behaviouron organizational performance.
(iii) tofind out the impact of environmental factors on organizational performance.
(iv) toascertain the impact of job satisfaction on organizational performance.
1.5 Significance of the Study
The research work was beneficial to the following group of people;
Management: The outcome of this study would enable management of organization to adopt a sound human resources management strategy for better performance of the organization. The principles of emotional intelligence would go a long way in managing changes in the business and immediate environment for enhancing the performance of the organization.
Policy Makers and Practitioners: This study would also be of high relevant to policy makers to take a proactive step for effective human resource management in enhancing organizational performance. The level of competencies employ by policy makers and practitioner will help to manage temperaments,mental status and tensions in the workplace that will lead to improved client and customer satisfaction. It would also provide guide towards the selection of the best policies to achieving best performance and remaining a market leader.
Future Researcher: This study would also be relevant to researchers in the field of Business and management as it would provide information and empirical evidence for further research in this area.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study is centered on emotional intelligence and organizational performance.The scope of this study was cut acrossthe non-academic staff in University of Benin, Nigeria. The study is delimited to non-academic staff in the Faculty of Management Sciences, Faculty of Art and Faculty of Agricultural Sciences. The study employedYaroYamne formula for the computation of the sample size of the study.