CHALLENGES OF BOKO HARAM INSURGENT AND ITS SECURITY THREAT TO THE NIGERIAN STATE

  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:100
  • Methodology:Simple Percentage
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Political Science)
CHALLENGES OF BOKO HARAM INSURGENT AND ITS SECURITY THREAT TO THE NIGERIAN STATE
CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Nigeria is a multi-ethnic and a multi-religious state with a population of about 160 million people cutting across the divides of ethnicity and religious beliefs. Comprising 36 states, a federal capital territory (FCT) and 774 local government councils, it is a complex, multi-religious and multi-ethnic nation state according to (Oyeniyi 2012). The complexity of Nigeria as a nation state is centred on its political formation, economic, social and religious inclinations. As a nation state, the country since independence has experienced several ethnic and religious crisis of various degrees and magnitude (Gilbert, 2013). Grappling with such political and economically motivated crises, successive administrations in Nigeria have been criticized by either the Muslim or Christian faithfuls when they are not favoured.
The return to democracy in Nigeria in May, 1999 brought hopes of development and political stability to Nigeria. The last decade in Nigeria has experienced an increase in violent conflicts and criminality, which tended to undermine those expectations. The violence and criminality have come in the form of armed robbery, kidnapping, drug trafficking, arms smuggling, human trafficking and militancy, among other acts of criminality that undermine national security. Internal security has been significantly undercut by violent activities of civilian-in-arms against the Nigerian State. These have included radicalized religious and 2 regional youth groups, prominent among which are the Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND), O’Odua Peoples’ Congress (OPC), the Arewa People’s Congress (APC), Bakassi Boys, Egbesu Boys, the Movement for the Actualisation of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB), and more recently, Boko Haram, Ansaru, ‘Kala-Kato’, and Ombatse, among others (Onuoha, 2012: 134-151).
Over the years, Nigeria has experienced series of attacks and blast in most region of the country. The violent agitation by Militants in the Niger Delta region (MEND) has often led to loss of lives and properties otherwise known as “Movement for Emancipation of Niger Delta. So many spirited groups hide under this body to carry out their nefarious acts of rebellion govern the Nigerian state to express their governances over the degradations of the operation of the multinational organization. Similarly, there are groups that exist in other parts of the country and they include; the “OduaPeople’s Congress (OPC) which is located in the South-West. They are often called the Afeinifere group. There exists also the “Movement for the Actualization of Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB), in the South-East while the “Boko Haram” uses the Northern part of the country as their operational base. Falola (1990:143).
Without digressing from the major context, we hear, of insurgency, terrorism, extremism and religious fundamentalism, we hear of civil wars and unrest, we hear of revolutions here and there but now it looms in our nation, Nigeria. In the 1970’s Nigeria experienced her first ever chaotic situation - the civil war. Nigeria has more so experienced so many ethno-religious crisis and violence but recently is that of Boko Haram which sends fear deep down the spine of every Nigerian even at the federal level. The Boko Haram sect became known internationally following sectarian violence in Nigeria in 2009 and through their attacks on security personnel’s and citizens from then on has purged into the ills of insurgency.
The current Boko Haram insurgency in the North-east geopolitical zone of Nigeria that originally took the form of sectarian religious violence has escalated into terrorist activities with international linkages and affiliations making it a relatively difficult nut for the Nigerian government to crack (Gilbert, 2014). Consequently, Nigeria has not known peace for about four years now. The emergence of the fundamentalist Islamic sect, has led to the flight for safety and security of most Nigerians residing in the North East, especially Christians. Since the commencement of the terrorist operations of the sect, they have adopted several methods to unleash terror on the people. And most states of Northern Nigeria have experienced their dastardly activities, but the worst hit has been Adamawa, Bauchi, Bornu, FCT (Abuja), Kaduna, Kano, Plateau and Yobe (Nwakaudu, 2012:5).
According to Agomuo (2011:48) what started around 2006 in the far flung North East geopolitical zone of the country as a child’s play, has become a national disgrace and of international concern. The emergence of the deadly group, whose activities assumed a worrisome dimension in 2009, has continued a reign of terror in parts of the country. The inhuman activities of the Islamist sect, have unsettled the Nigerian nation to the extent that ample time and socio-economic cum political resources that ought to have been channeled to the development of the entire country is being wasted on various efforts geared towards checkmating and possibly, annihilating the insurgency in the North East geopolitical zone of Nigeria. Agreed that the North-east is the epicentre of the insurgency but its effect reverberates through the entire country and has constituted a major source of underdevelopment to Nigeria. It is against this backdrop that this paper seeks to critically interrogate the impact of Boko Haram insurgency on the underdevelopment of Nigeria. With the use of data basically from secondary sources, the study analyzes the effects of the nefarious activities of the Islamist sect on the social, economic and political life of Nigeria.
Statement of Research Problem    
It is no longer news that the activities of the Boko Haram and other similar political and or religious sects have often led to loss of properties, lives, and even the breakdown of laws and order, peace and security in the Nigerian society at large. It has been observed that a lot of attacks have been made onto many states, which include even the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. What puzzles most observers is the fact that most of these attacks are not carried out by suicide bombers yet the culprits often get away unharmed. This leaves a big question mark in our security agencies as regards to their duty in the protection of lives and properties, and the procurement of weapons of mass destruction to combat this menace which is eating deep into the Nigerian society today. Without being said, Boko Haram crisis do not have any advantage instead it is a vicious and nefarious act carried out by individuals for their selfish desires, the motivating factor being to control the religious and political power. From the Niger Delta uprising to the recent series of Boko Haram sect insurgency, Nigeria is presently undergoing a true test of security capabilities, as the nation with her leaders had failed to provide adequate security for lives and properties of her citizens. However, it is the above stated problems that instigated the researcher into investigating on the topic underdevelopment and insurgencies in Nigeria: a case study of the Boko Haram terrorism in the northeast.
Relatively, Nigeria has made a relative gains since the emergence of democratic political system. Nigeria however still has a long way to go in terms of achieving functional socio-political and economic stability, peace and sustainable democratic development. Of all challenges facing socio-political and economic development is the Boko Haram insurgency. Since returning to democratic governance over a decade ago, Nigeria’s socio-economic development has been wreaked by ethnic and religious violence. According to Badmus (2010) there have been clashes in the Niger Delta region of the country between armed youths, protesting lack of adequate access to the wealth generated from their area, and security drafted there to keep the peace. The emergence of Boko-Haram since 2009 in the northern part of Nigeria has had a debilitating effect on the socio-political and economic development of the area on one hand, and on the other hand,   the entire country.
RESEARCH QUESTIONS    
Opinions are however divided over the propelling firing of this group. It has indeed in a bid to eradicate these incessant chaos and destruction which has often led to loss of assets, that the researcher which to posit some research questions. Thus:
What is the remote cause of Boko Haram crisis in Nigeria?
What are the socio-political implications of theBoko Haram crisis in Nigeria?
What are the economic implications in terms of the underdeveloping effects of the Boko Haram crisis in the north east region of Nigeria?
In what way should the Nigerian government handle the Boko Haram crisis with a view of preventing its underdeveloping effects?
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main thrust of this study is to take a cursory look at underdevelopment and insurgencies in Nigeria: a case study of the Boko Haram terrorism in the northeast. To achieve this, the researcher has the following objectives as it points.  
To discover if there is a correlation between underdevelopment and the Boko Haram terrorism in the northeast region.
To ascertain the socio-Political implication of Boko Haram crisis in Nigeria.
To make suggestions to the federal government on how to tackle the Boko Haram crisis with view to itsunder developing effects.
To identify and highlight the factors responsible for the emergence of the Boko Haram insurgency in the north east region of the country.
SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY.
    This research work is aimed at evaluating Boko Haram and insurgencies in Nigeria with particular reference to the north eastern region of the Nigeria which comprises of Yobe, Adamawa and Borno states within the year 2009 – 2016. The study shall also examine the nexus between the Boko Haram sect violence and the level underdevelopment in Nigeria in order to fulfil part of the objective of this study.
    The main limitation for this research rests on my inability to have real and first-hand interviews with current or even former members of Boko Haram. This is because Boko Haram is still an ongoing threat and as such even going to the North-Eastern part of Nigeria remains a risk. Another basic limitation rests on the collection and availability of data especially with regards to Boko Haram attacks. While some of the sites are locked and others have some earlier information removed, there was also the grave limitation posed by inaccuracy by different sources (news outfits) with regards to an attack or the number of dead or injured. This shortcoming was however reduced by comparing what, at least, four sources reported on an issue.
    Future researchers should however coin out modalities in order to see through the eyes of insurgents and terrorists. By this I mean, having interviews with insurgents to personally hear why they do what they do.
    Despite the above mentioned short comings and hindrances, the research study will no doubt turn out to be successful.  
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
There are numerous reasons why this research is useful, the research work will be of great importance to students and lecturers in practice of how to carry out further research in the same area. It will help the government to solve some likely problems that might encounter in terms of development in Nigeria. Also, the research will act as a guide to the government in their quest to quell the problems associated with security, ethnic crisis and political or religious crisis in Nigeria.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
A research has to do with the methods adopted by the researcher to collect data, which is relevant to the issue or problem under consideration. It is a straight, clear and vivid road which anyone who takes will not fail to reach his destination (Odo, 1999). It reflects to a large extent the sense of originality and power of mental enquiry. The researcher of this project shall make use of secondary data. It will be a death mission to actually go to the camp of the insurgents to get first hand information. And we will avoid researchers’ bias by all means possible.
The findings herewith presented were based on a desk research with heavy reliance on books; you tube clips, online news outfits, articles, online data sources, journals, and reports. Being a qualitative research, emphasis is also hinged on content analysis.
 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS/CONCEPT
COHESION: The art or state of sticking together.
SPIRITED: Deals with having or showing mettle, courage, vigor, energy and determination.
NEFARIOUS: Being wicked.
DEGRADATION: A situation in which somebody has lost all self- respect and the respect of other people. It is also the process of something being damaged or made worse.
BEDEVILED: To cause a lot of problems for somebody or something over a long period of time.
TANTAMOUNT: Having the same bad effect as something else.
AGITATION: To argue strongly for something you want, especially for changes in a law, in social conditions, etc.
INSURGENCY: An organized rebellion aimed at overthrowing a constituted government through the use of subversion and armed conflict
RETARDATION: An offensive way of describing somebody who is not intelligent or who has not developed normally.
TERRORISM:The unlawful use of force and violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.
DEVELOPMENT: The act or process of bringing to a more advanced state, growth, progress, etc. It is also the gradual growth of something so that it becomes more advanced, stronger, etc.
VICIOUS: Full of hatred and anger, savages, evil, etc.

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Project Details

Department Political Science
Project ID POL0049
Price ₦5,000 ($14)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 100 Pages
Methodology Simple Percentage
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Project Details

    Department Political Science
    Project ID POL0049
    Price ₦5,000 ($14)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 100 Pages
    Methodology Simple Percentage
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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