THE INFLUENCE OF WESTERN CULTURE ON TRADITIONAL EBIRA LAND OF OKENE

  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:64
  • Methodology:Descriptive
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(International and Diplomatic Studies)
      THE  INFLUENCE OF WESTERN CULTURE ON TRADITIONAL EBIRA LAND OF OKENE
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE
Background to the Study
CHAPTER TWO
Brief History of Ebira People
CHAPTER THREE
The Family System in Ebira
CHAPTER FOUR
The Impact of Western Culture on Ebira Socio-Political and Economic Institution
CHAPTER FIVE
Conclusion
BIBLIOGRAPHY
CHAPTER ONE
 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Introduction
    Ebira Tao is the largest of the several Ebira groups found in about 8 state of Nigeria including the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). The other sister groups are Ebira Koto and Ebira Mozum (Koyi State), Ebira panda, Ebira Oje Toto (Nassarawa State), Ebira Etuno (Edo State) Ebira Agatu (Benue State) Ebira Oloko (Ondo, Oyo, Osun, States).1 Written records about the origin of the Ebira people were these compiled from place sources by the British colonial administrator in early 20th century.
    The Ebira through oral tradition, trace their descent to Wukari (in the present Taraba State) where they were constituent part of the Kwararata confederation in about 1680 AD, they (along with the Idoma and Igala) migrated out of Wukari a chieftaincy dispute. The Ebira later split into various groups and settled in different locations between 1680 and 1750 AD.
    The Ebira Tao first sojourned with the Igalas at Idah but later crossed the River Niger and settled at Ebira Opete located the vicinity of Upaka in Ajaokuta Local Government Area (L. G. A) The “Father of the Ebira Tao who led them to his premier settlement in Ebira land was Itaazi. Itaazi had five (5) sons who all later migrated from Ebira Opete and were the founders of the various district in Ebira land. The children and the districts they founded are Obaji (Eyika), Adaviruku/Ohizi (Adavi) Ododo (Okeli) Uga (Okengwe) and Ochuga/ Outu (Ihima). His daughter named Ohunene settled in Eganyi district members of the various clans in Ebiraland are descendants or the children of Itazi. Ohizi had five (5) children who progenitors of the five (5) traditional Adavi clans named after them. These are Upopo-Uvete (Apasi), Uka, Idu (Aneku), Adeyika and Uhwani. A migrant group from Eganyi known as Ezi- Onogu clans is also found in Adavi the sons of Ododo who are the ancestors of Okeli clans were Okovi Ovevi and Enwgukonyai. Obaji the founder of Eyika had ten children named ohiaga, Iyewe, Avassa, Ehemi, Anchi, Epoto, Egiri, Ubobo, Ogu, and Eyire. Uga of Okengwe had two sons whose children constitute the present Okori and Aguda group of clans.
    Due to a sizeable concentration of other Ebira clans in Okengwe district, they formed a socio-political coalition known as Ada-ehi-Ochuga had six (6) children and their descendents make up the six clans in Ihima. These are Emuni, Oha/Idu, Ohu eta, ure, Ohongwa and Odumi.2 The seventh clan is Akuta who migrated from Okengwe. Though Itaazi’s daughter name Ohunene was the founder of Eganyi not all the clans there are descended from her. Eganyi clan are Ede, Esugu, Ehede, Ogu, Onoko, Idu, Anavapa and Ogodo. The Aniugere who are skilled craftsmen are found in all districts. They are however more concentrated in Okengwe and Adavi districts.
    “Eche Ovi” is a new yam festival celebrated only in two districts in Ebira land. These are Ihima and Eganyi. During the festival, traditional worshipper make sacrifices in the secrets groove of Ori (deity) high up in the mountain to show gratitude for its protection and provision of bounteous harvest. The worshippers carry long canes with which they whip one another in turns without any one exhibiting any sign of pain. This is a mark of strength or manhood. Another important attractive of the festival is the delightful ‘Echori’ music in which female singers features prominently. Only after the festival can one eat or sell new yam in the market as it is a taboo to do so before the festival in Ihima and Eganyi.
    This is a night masquerade festival which is the end of the Ebira calander year and the beginning of a new one.
    Ododo is popularly acclaimed to be the initiator of this masquerade festival. The Akalapa masquerade in heading the beginning of the festival often says “Irayi Ododo Osigu, Irayi akatapa osi gu eech. Osa yeeeh!” which mean “the year of the Ododo has ended the year of Akatapa has ended. Here is another year. The festival begins with a festival eve in which folk singers (Ome Ikede) perform to the delight of both men and women. The following day the real festival in which masquerades sing and dance to entertain people from dusk to down takes place. It is restricted to men only so all women stay indoors throughout the duration of the festival. All dead relatives are believed to return to an earth on a visit this night, so woman prepare delicious ‘Apapa’ (beans read) and he-goat meat of the visitors. The women also at time monetary gift with the men for the visiting dead relatives, trust men, the meals and gifts are properly and neatly delivered to the beneficiaries who only the men have the privilege of seeing and interacting with the spirit.3
Aim and Objectives
    The research work is aims at revealing the impact of western culture on the Ebira people of Okene, it also aims at revealing the socio-economic and political development of the Ebira people in pre-colonial time, its influence inter-group relation between the Ebira people and their neighbours.
Scope of Study
    The research work will cover a brief history and geographical location of the Ebira people, the traditional and socio-cultural development in Ebira land in pre-colonial times, the influences of Western culture and Christianity on the Ebiria people.
Literature Review
    In Festus Ojo work titled “The History of the Okene People”4 This book examined the geography of Okene land in Nigeria and the people who occupy that region, according to Festus Ojo stated that the Ebira people are republican by nature, outspoken and very hard working farming and cloth weaving are occupations for which the Ebira are well known. They are presently spread in Five Local Government Area of Kogi State namely: Adavi, Okene, Okehi Ajaokuta and Ogori-mangongo. A sizeable number is also found in Lokoja Local Government Area and Oyo State.5
    According to Adavi Mayaki works titled, “The Culture of the Ebira People”6 he examined the Ebira tradition, the men does not walk to the parents of the woman to disclose his intentions his parents or elders mostly the women do this by going to the lady’s parents to introduce themselves and also to inform them of their reason for coming to the house. The amount to be collected as bride price is also agreed upon by the parents of the bride and it depends to a large extent, on the financial strength of the man.7
    According to Joseph Okeli works titled. The Iron culture and Ebira People8 this work examined the numerous potentials of the Ebira land, he also elaborate on the traditional migration story of the Ebira people, as stated “the Ebira through oral tradition, trace their decent to Wukari (in the present Taraba state where they were a constituent part of the kwararata confederation. In about 1680 AD, they (along with the Idoma and Igala) migrated out of Wukari a chieftaincy dispute.9
    Also in this category is P. A. Igbafe article titled Benin in pre-colonial Era10. The author takes an historical analysis of the entity or state called Benin in her pre-colonial era.11
    Another work to be examined is an article by J. I Osagie titled “Nigerian History in pre-colonial times Southern Nigeria.12 Where he discusses the pre-colonial history and peoples of Southern Nigeria. The period according to the author was when major empires like Oyo, Benin and Igbo state emerged in the area. He discusses that Benin, more than any other ethnic group has played major roles in the history of Nigeria.
    Another literature that was consulted in the course of this essay is the book also by P. A Igbafe titled Benin under British Administration.13 Where he narrated how the white men came to Benin and publicly declared that overanin is no longer the king of Benin. The book discusses the attempt to strip the Oba of his erstwhile political influence which was to be rounded off by moor’s calculated plan of a one year tour with Oba Ovnramwen and two other Benin chiefs to old Calabar, Lagos and some parts of Yoruba Land. The tour was probably designed also to give Ovonramwen an insight in to the government of other territories under British rule. Chapter ten discuses clearly that the immediate concern of the British officers after the capture of Benin City was the economic exploitation of the natural resources and the forest wealth of the kingdom.14
    Another work to be examined is RE Bradbury’s book titled “The Benin Kingdom and the Edo speaking people of South Western Nigeria.15
    Where he writes that Benin City is called Edo by its inhabitants and in certain contexts individuals from all parts of the kingdom will refer to themselves as Oviedo (Child of Edo) or Ovioba (Oba’s subject). He also writes that contrast with all other Edo-speaking areas there are many villages in the Benin Kingdom whose inhabitants have no tradition that their ancestors came from elsewhere, and that some informants speak vaguely of a general migration from the east and other trace everything back to Ife a tendency which may simply follow from the fact that Ife is the accepted origin of the present ruling dynasty. The author also discusses the main features of economy markets and the political system of the Benin people.16
Methodology
    The method of writing research work will be primary and secondary sources. The primary sources will be oral interviews archival document, newspapers, and documentary while the secondary sources will be textbooks, articles, and journals e.t.c
Chapter Outline
Chapter One: Background to Study:
    The chapter gives an introduction to the whole project, emphasis are placed on the mode by which the project would be undertaken which includes the justification of the research, the aims of the project, the scope of the study, methodology and the literature review for the construction of the intended project.
Chapter Two: A Brief History of Ebira Peoples:
    This chapter provides a history of the Ebira people. It shows where they came from, where they settled before relocating to their present location now. Their socio-political structures evolved in the pre-colonial era would also be examined though in a minimal study. Also some of their festivals will be examined and also rulers who had great influence in Ebira. The political administration in the pre-colonial time will also be well explained.
Chapter Three: The Family System in Ebira:
    This chapter will attempt a critical and in-depth study of the family activities of pre-colonial Ebira. The different family structure the of Ebira people, their land tenure system, their forms of marriage, different dance and song used in marriage, burial and other occassion in the pre-colonial time.
Chapter Four: The Impact of Western Culture on Ebira Socio-Political and Economic Institution:
    This chapter would examine the western influence on Ebira land in their traditional political society, commerce and trade-investment and their socio-cultural activities. Also   Craft activities which the Ebira people involved themselves in the pre-colonial period. Also how the people formed different guild in other to trade will be examined; types of goods produced in these industries will also be well explained.
Chapter Five: Conclusion:
    This chapter concludes this project, it would give a general summary of how the Ebira people were in the pre-colonial time, and different socio-economic activities they involved in, how these activities help them to grow in the pre-colonial time. However, the conclusion is the total summary for the different socio-economic activities that has been explained above in the pre-colonial time of Ebira people. Also the impact of western influence upon Ebira socio-economic and political activities would be discussed.
Endnotes
F. Ojo, The History of the Okene People (Ibadan: Ibadan University Press. 1990), p.22-25.
Ibid.
Ibid.
Ibid.
Ibid., p.15
Adavi Mayaki, “The Culture of the Ebira Peoples”, Nigeria Historical Journal Vol. 7. 2009.
Ibid.,p.3
Joseph Okeli, “The Iron culture and Ebira people” Global Journal of Historical Society, Vol.7 No 3. 2001
Ibid.,p.7
P. A Igbate’s, Benin in Pre-Colonial Era, Tarlkh Vol.5, No. 1 1974
Ibid.,p.5
J. I Osagie, Nigerian History in Pre-Colonial Time Southern Nigerian” In AD Nzemeka and E. O Erhagbe (eds), Nigeria Peoples and Culture, (Benin City: Department of History University of Benin 1979) p. 13.
P. A Igbate, Benin under British Administration (London: Longman 1979), p.31
Ibid.,p.9
R. E Bradbury, The Benin Kingdom and the Edo-speaking Peoples of South Western Nigeria, (London, International African Institute 1986), p.24.

Ibid.,p10

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Project Details

Department International and Diplomatic Studies
Project ID IDS0019
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 64 Pages
Methodology Descriptive
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Project Details

    Department International and Diplomatic Studies
    Project ID IDS0019
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 64 Pages
    Methodology Descriptive
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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