USEFULNESS OF COST-VOLUME-PROFIT ANALYSIS IN MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF INNOSON TECHNICAL) ABSTRACT In all business enterprises, the implementation of cost volume profit analysis is very important and can never be over emphasized and to achieve this goal, target and objective, it is beckoned on the decision of managers. So the aim of this study is to find out the responsiveness and relationship of cost volume profit analysis that could be positive or negative in business decisions. In the study, a questionnaire was used to collect relevant data from the staff of Innoson technical Enugu, the findings revealed that Innoson technical Enugu has perception that the establishment of cost volume profit analysis has helped in the improvement of operational activities and in issues raised in the research work. The study broadened the researcher’s depth of knowledge and the research embarked on review of related literature. Data drawn from secondary sources all contributed. Data generated was also presented on frequency table and analyzed clearly. It was discovered at the end of the research work that most organizations are unable to achieve the organizations goal because of inability to apply the theory of cost volume profit analysis perfectly. Finally, the application of cost volume profit analysis is more sensitive to management decision TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER ONE 1.0 Background of the Study 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Statement of problems 1.3 Objective of the Study 1.4 Research Hypothesis 1.5 Scope of the Study 1.6 Significance of the Study 1.7 Limitation of the Study 1.8 Definition of Terms Reference CHAPTER TWO 2.0 Review of Literature 2.1 Theoretical Review 2.2 Assumption of Break-even Analysis 2.3 Application of Break-even Analysis 2.4 Margin of Safety: (By Definition) 2.5 Approach to Cost Volume Profit Analysis 2.6 Profit Volume Graph 2.7 Cost Volume profit Analysis for Multi-Production 2.8 Operational Techniques 2.9 Cost Volume Profit Analysis and Computer Application 2.10 Sensitivity Analysis 2.11 Limitation of Break-Even Analysis 2.12 Empirical Review Reference CHAPTER THREE 3.0 Research Methodology 3.1 Research Design 3.2 Area of Study 3.3 Population of Study 3.4 Sources of Data 3.5 Sampling Methods 3.6 Research Instrumentation 3.7 Validity and Reliability of Research Instrument 3.8 Method of Data Analysis CHAPTER FOUR 4.0 Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation 4.1 Presentation of Data 4.2 Analysis of Question CHAPTER FIVE 5.0 Summary of Finding, Recommendations and Conclusion 5.1 Summary of Findings 5.2 Recommendation 5.3 Conclusion Bibliography/References Appendix Questionnaire CHAPTER ONE 1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1.1 INTRODUCTION In all business enterprise, the implementation of cost volume profit analysis is very important and can never be over emphasized and to achieve this goal, target and objectives, it is beckoned on the decision of the managers. However, cost volume profit analysis is a tool used by managers of business organization or manufacturing firms in making sure that proper decision are made in other to achieve the targeted goals or objective of such business. This research work intends to cover the responsibilities and the relationship of cost volume profit analysis that could be positive or negative in business decision making. And the used of cost volume profit analysis to determine the firm operating income and the net income as discussed by “Thurmas. V” 2008. It also aimed at establishing a minimized cost and creating room for a maximized profit through the use of cost volume profit analysis. More so, in an organization where we have multiple product lines, the used of cost volume profit analysis is of important in the aspect of decision making and in most case to know which of the product line have higher contribution to profit than the other in business organization. Is a tool used to show the relationship between various ingredients of profit planning and if properly applied it enable the company to satisfy the industry and stakeholders of such business. Furthermore, some underlying assumptions are drawn from the reference materials which are covered in this research work. Some areas of concerned include the limit to the implementation of C.V.P analysisor manufacturing organization to enable the preparation of simple income statement. Finally, despite the enormous important of C.V.P analysis, some demerit associated with it are in the aspect of some basic assumption used in the implementation of C.V.P. analysis which do not exist for more than one accounting period. 1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS Among all the enormous problems listed by previous researchers that are associated with this research work, this research work intends to address the following problems: a. The result of the analysis can only be relied upon within the relevant range i.e. within the activity level that the associated cost can be accurately determined. b. The likely set back that may have take place if cost volume profit analysis is not adequately applied in manufacturing organization. c. The likely change of fixed cost at different activity level make the assumption that fixed cost is a faulty assumption. 1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY a) To determine the extent to which cost volume profit analysis can be relied upon for proper decision making b) To identify the intended solution provided by applying the usefulness of cost volume profit analysis in decision making in manufacturing organization. c) To determine the changes in fixed cost at different level of activity, it is important as it’s concern taking decision for multiple product line in manufacturing firms cannot be over emphasized. 1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS This study set out text among other things which include the following hypothesis a. H¬O: that the present cost volume profit analysis applied for decision making is not useful. H1: that the present cost volume profit analysis applied for decision making is useful b. HO: that the present cost volume profit analysis applied in manufacturing organization is not useful. H1: that the present cost volume profit analysis applied in manufacturing organization is useful c. HO¬: the assumption that fixed costs remain constant is not relevant for decision making in manufacturing organization. H1: the assumption that fixed cost remain constant is relevant for decision making in manufacturing organization. 1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY This research intends to cover the cost volume profit analysis adopted by various manufacturing companies especially for their production activities. As a matter of fact, only the branch of Innoson Technical Enugu will be limited to the study; however generalized view will be taking on other Nigerian branches which gave room for further studies.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The study has both practical and academic significance as documented below.
PRACTICAL SIGNIFICANCE This research work will be of paramount importance to manufacturing company, their manager and production staff of the company. This research will also serve as a guide in the performance of their respective duties. It will help them in appreciating the importance of cost volume analysis in decision making of their companies. ACADEMIC SIGNIFICANCE It will be of immense help in our educational process in the aspect of management decision making and for individual in the aspect of man power development. It is also important in the upgrade of student educational qualification as it concern cost-volume- profit analysis for decision making. 1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS i. COST BEHAVOIR: Cost behaviour considers how a given cost reacts in total to changes in output of production. There are at least three different ways in which cost behave viz variable fixed and mixed. ii. BREAK EVEN: The point at which total revenue equals total cost and the company makes no profit or loss. iii. COST-VOLUME-PROFIT ANALYSIS – This represents the application of marginal costing that seeks to study the relationship between cost, volume and profit. iv. FIXED COST: These are costs which do not change in total with changes in level of output example, interest, audit fees, rent. v. VARIABLE COST: These are costs that vary in line with output. They are referred to as activity based cost because of the level of activity undertaken. vi. SALE MIX: The properties of unit of product sold in a multiple production company vii. CONTRIBUTION MARGIN: These are the difference between revenue (sales) and variable cost in total, as total revenue less total variable cost.
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