MANAGERIAL BEHAVIOUR AND ORGANISATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
It is the responsibility of managers to mange, and to achieve results through the efforts of other people. This involves the effective utilization of human resources. The way in which managers exercise their responsibilities is important and account for their managerial behaviour. Consideration should therefore be given to the management of the people. Managers are only likely to be effective if they adopt an appropriate style of behaviour.
The first step in the effective management of people is confidence in your own ability and awareness of your own strength and weaknesses.
An essential ingredient/ tool of any successful manager is the ability to handle people effectively. People respond according to the manner in which they are been treated. In the right manner, the bests in them will be brought out. The behaviour of managers and their styles of management will influence the effort expended and the level of performance achieved by subordinate staff.
Management style can be as important as management competence. The general movement towards flatter organisation structures, flexible working and greater employee involvement places greater emphasis on an integrating effort rather than a traditional controlling style of management. According to Macken (1994:64) cited in essentials of management by Olannye (2005), “management has become more about managing people than managing operations, unless we have harnessed the full potentials of our people, even the best plans are likely to be less than successful”. To achieve organisational effectiveness, managers must provide an environment in which employees will thrive best and promote increased individual performance. The way managers generally approach the performance of their jobs and the behaviour they display towards subordinate staff is likely to be conditioned by their pre-dispositions about people.
When staff of an organisation perceive their manager as being friendly and trustworthy, they are likely to be positive in their approaches to assigned duties and responsibilities. Manager’s attitude towards people, his managerial/leadership style, the management systems and the application of management by objective (MBO) in system dynamics, are essential elements in determining managerial behaviour. In Nigeria for example, most organisations including educational institutions of higher learning have their managers and or administrators exhibit characteristics that are not in line with organisational expectations, while others simply personalize their offices.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Agu C. (2003), in his book “management, an introductory text” states that McGregor put forwards two suppositions about human nature and behaviour at work, he argued that the style of management adopted is a function of the managers attitude towards people and assumptions about human nature and behaviour. The two suppositions are called theory X and theory Y, and are basic popular assumptions about people and work. Theory X represented or represents the carrot and stick assumptions on which traditional organisations are based and was widely accepted and practiced before the development of the human relations approach. The assumptions of the theory are:
The average person is lazy and has inherent dislike for work.
Most people must be concerned, controlled, directed and threatened with punishment if the organisation is to achieve its objectives or goals.
The average person avoids responsibility, prefers to be directed, lack ambition and values security most of the time.
The central principle if this theory is directed and control through centralized system of organisation and the exercise of authority.
On the other hand, theory y states that an average person sees work as natural as play, if he is given the freedom to exercise his ingenuity.
The managerial behaviour is therefore formed along these two extremes. How those the manager perceive his work? Does his perception in any way affects organisational effectiveness?. Is there any relationship between managerial behaviour and organisational effectiveness?
The answer to the above questions from the central theme of this study.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
This study is geared or directed towards finding out:
- To explain the relationship between managerial behaviour and organisational effectiveness.
- To bring to the tore managers attitude towards people in an organisation.
- To explain whether the perception of managers affect organisational growth.
- To examine the extent to which management attitude affect organisational goal.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions are formulated to guide the study.
1. Is there any relationship between managerial behaviour and organisational effectiveness?
2. Does managers attitude has impact on people in an organisation?
3. Does the perception of managers affect organisational growth?
4. To what extent does management attitude affect organisational goals?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The following research hypotheses are formulated to guide the study.
Hi: There is a significant relationship between managerial behaviour and organisational effectiveness.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between managerial behaviour and organisational effectiveness.
Hi: Managers attitude has impact on people in an organisation.
Ho: Managers attitude does not have any impact on people in an organisation.
Hi: Perception of managers affects organisational growth.
Ho: Perception of managers does not affect organisational growth
Hi: Management attitude affect organisational goals.
Ho: Management attitude does not affect organisational goals.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study has the following significance:
It provides a basis for management practitioners to identify components of managerial behaviour and organisational effectiveness.
It will provide the needed information’s that will be required by policy makers in formulating policies that will guide managerial behaviour.
It will provide the needed information that can be converted to data base that will serve as a reference point to future researchers.
It will serve as a guide to management scholars and practitioners alike, as it will provide data and other statistical information’s that will be required for further research work. It will help in enhancing organisational growth, through effective management.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is limited to the employees of Apaco Company, Agbor. The employees are put into two broad groups-the junior and senior employees. Therefore, the respondent will only constitute the junior and senior staff of the establishment
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The following factors militate/stood against the research:
1. Time constraint: While carrying out the research work, it was observe that the stipulated time to carryout the research work was not enough.
2. The respondents’ attitude: the respondents are not co-operative. That is, the people the researcher met to sought for information where not able to give him all the needed information for the study.
3. Finance: in carrying out the research work, the researcher was unable to obtain the needed money to sponsor the research work.
4. Inadequate material: The researchers were unable to obtain the needed material to carry out the research work.
1.9 DEFINITINON OT TERMS
The following terms have been operationally defined to guide the study:
Management: This is the process of utilizing both human and material resources to achieve a pre-determined objective or goal of an organisation.
Managers: This is a person who works through others to achieve organisational goal or objectives. He handles the affairs of the organisation like, training, planning, organising, directing, controlling, budgeting and motivation of employees in an organisation.
Managerial behaviour: this refers to the collective attitude, values, codes and principles of manage. It is the attitude of management to organisational employees.
Control: this is the act of monitoring actual performance against standard. The reason for control is to provide the right good in the right condition, at the right quality, right price, at the right quality, in the right place and at the right time.
Organisation: this is a social system established to achieve pre-determined goals or objectives.
Organisational effectiveness: this refers to the degree extent to which an organisation achieves its set objectives or goal at a given period of time.
Effectiveness: This is concerned with doing the right things, and relates to output of the job and what the manager actually achieves.
Efficiency: This is concerned with doing the right things, and relates to input of the job and what the manager does.
Attitude: Providing a state of “readiness’’ or tendency to respond in a particular way.
Beliefs: Concerned with what is known about the word, they center on what “is” on reality as it is understood.
Values: These are concerned with what should be and what is desirable.
Organisation: these are social constructs created by groups in society to achieve specific purposes by means of planned and coordinated activities involves using human resources to act in association with other inanimate resources in order to achieve the aims of the organisation.
Planning: this is the process of determining the activities to be performed in the future in an organisation.
Budgeting: this is the act of determining the amount of finance needed to perform a given activity in an organisation. It also deals with stating the resources of obtaining the needed finance, and how it should be spent or distributed.
Coordinating: this is the act of bringing human and other resources needed to achieve organisational objectives or goals.
Motivating: this is the act of influencing people in an organisation to improve their performances.