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(Business Administration and Management)

“The 70 mm screen is a product as well as a medium…a great medium of entertainment...Therefore, cinema the product becomes relatively important to promote and pull in audiences”
In this ever changing world, management of business holds a very important key for making substantial progress.
 The course of MBA is one of the best ways to gain the required knowledge in this respect. Comprehensive Project is also a vital part of the MBA course which enables the students to understand how to apply theoretical knowledge in practical world. It helps to develop various skills like leadership, communication, analytical skills and so on. It presents a unified picture of what management is and how it is applicable to the various forms of human endeavour. The opportunity is to make Comprehensive Project on “EFFECT OF MEDIA, MESSAGE AND STYLE ON MOVIE MARKETING”. This project report gives details about the marketing mix of Entrainment service marketing mix and gives an insight view of conventional and unconventional promotional champing of Bollywood movie marketing.
It contains the data gathered mainly from the employees, students, house wives, male, females, business man and therefore, the analysis has been done accordingly. Our sincere efforts are try to cover each and every aspect of our topic to the best extent possible by including questions that would help us get the appropriate answers.
Finally, the analysis presents us with a lot of insight which helps us to evaluate and analyze our chosen topic comprehensively.

Introduction to Movie Marketing
1.1 overview of Indian film industry and market
1.2 The Integrated marketing communication
1.3 Planning a film marketing campaign
1.4 The stages in film marketing
1.5 mediums of film marketing
Introduction of the Study
2.1 Literature Review
2.2 Background of the Study
2.3  Problem Statement  and importance of the Study
2.4 Objectives of Study
2.5 Gap Found
2.6 Hypothesis
Research methodology
Data analysis and Interpretation

Results and Findings
Limitations of the Study
7.1 Studio Model
7.2 Digital Distribution
7.3 Real Simple Syndicate

Executive Summary
It’s very rightly said that cricket and Bollywood sell in India. The long queues outside cinema halls of ardent movie lovers who want to catch the movie on its release day with bated breath and the magic of muhurats; premieres etc all prove the fact rightly! This paper examines the various nuances connected to popularizing the Bollywood movies before they release such that they have great openings. It aims to reflect on the trends that influence the ‘junta’ through traditional or non-traditional mediums and rake in the money for the film. The contents of the report comprises of the Bollywood film industry, the various trends and inflections that are prevalent currently and then to film marketing in detail. Marketing in movies always existed but never in such a big way as today. Everyone in the marketplace wants to be seen and heard but the person who manages to do that better than others walks away with the success. Today we produce the maximum number of movies but sadly they bomb at the box office also at the same or even faster. There is a new breed of film makers and production houses who want to curb this and ensure high possibility of making a movie a hit and get maximum footfalls, which brings us back to the original question ‘is marketing a film through unconventional media/methods more effective than the traditional methods?’
   The methodology employed for researching on this subject comprised of literature review wherein four reports (one dissertation on film marketing, report by Mr. Tarun Tripathi, ex-CMO, Yashraj Films Ltd. and two FICCI Frames report dated 2003 and 2006) were studied and reviewed. This literature review formed the basis of the dissertation. Further due to unavailability of adequate data related to the marketing expenses with respect to the spends on conventional and unconventional media, I resorted to a case study approach wherein I studied the marketing campaigns of the following movies in detail.....

“5 lac rupees for anyone who can watch my film alone in the theatre without getting frightened” echoed Ram Gopal Verma for his latest offering “Phoonk”. Katrina  Kaif on a special episode of Star Plus’s “Baa, Bahoo aur Baby” and Hrithik’s Coke being integrated in the film ”Dhoom 2”
      Although the concept is in its nascent stages in India, film marketing is evolving into a burgeoning industry. This area of study has been undertaken by us to reflect the changing paradigm in the Hindi film industry - popularly called Bollywood with respect to marketing and promotions. Over the years we have seen a seamless integration of marketing ideas selling the film and being responsible for its success rather than the content itself. Gone are the days when the film’s director and banner was good enough to draw the audiences. The multiplex crowd of today wants novelty and more than just storyline and star-cast to watch a movie. The entertainment created through the hype and hoopla created by the film marketers goes down a long way in predicting the film’s success. More and more film makers are adopting out-of-box strategies to cut through the clutter in the highly competitive business.
   From content related meaningful cinema to now commercial blockbusters with wafer thin plots which are minting money, Bollywood churns out the maximum number of films in the world in a given year. According to the Dodona report (by Cinema-going India), Indian cinemas would admit 4 billion cinema goers by 2011.
  Movies as a medium are carriers not only of the content or story they portray but also transmit various cultures other than our own which we assimilate, absorb and then react to. As Steven Speilberg has rightly put it “Cinema is the strongest weapon we have in the world today”.
    Movies are, as mentioned before, products - the only difference being, it has an extremely short shelf life and is intended for one time consumption. It takes a lot of effort to produce, make and then market a movie as the product, making it a complex process.
   Due to the short life cycle, the movies have to be competing in the minds of the viewers for space so that they come to the theatres to watch their films. So much so that, a Bollywood movie doesn’t compete for mind space only with their competitors releasing the same week or the next, it also competes with its predecessors from the same production house, with a fear of being type-casted as a movie in the similar league as the previous one.
For example “A Yash Raj” movie is bound to be lavish and hit…we better book our tickets in advance·, “Madhur  Bhandarkar’s” films are surely hard hitting and it is good to see the true side of society through his films. It works perfectly fine for production houses like the Barjatiya’s, the YashRaj’s, the Bhandarkar’s who specialize in a particular genre of movie, however for the experimentative ones, it works against them, even more if their last production wasn’t a ‘hit’·.
Now coming back to the point, for both these sections of the industry, marketing would play a vital role. We need to understand that a Yash Raj or a Bhandarkar wouldn’t be what they are unless they establish their forte through proper marketing channels. Also for the more adventurous film makers it’s imperative to realize the importance of establishing the differences between his/her movies through proper marketing techniques, so that the movies flourish or flounder individually.
 Marketing has now evolved as a separate business entity within the domain of film-making and is considered one of the most important variables in film-making today. It’s the ‘packaging’· that matters, says most film-marketing gurus today. With almost 30% of the films budget being actually allocated to film marketing, it is something that the organizations and Corporate are sitting up and taking notice.
The message is being the same, the medium used are multiple - be it the World Wide Web or the mass appealing television (75% of the film marketing budget) or even below the line activities like contests and integrated marketing activities.

1.1 Overview of Indian Film Industry and Market
India is the world's largest producer of films by volume - producing almost a thousand films annually. However, revenue-wise, it accounts for only 1 percent of global film industry revenues.
Components of the Indian film industry
The Indian film industry comprises of a cluster of regional film industries, like Hindi, Telugu, Tamil, Kannada, Malayalam, Bengali, etc. This makes it one of the most complex and fragmented national film industries in the world. These regional language films compete with each other in certain market segments and enjoy a virtual monopoly in certain others. The most popular among them is the Hindi film industry located in Mumbai, popularly referred to as “Bollywood”.

Out of the 200 Hindi films made in India each year, around 150 are made in Bollywood. These Bollywood films are released throughout India on both big and small screen formats, with several of them being screened overseas as well. Though there have been sporadic instances of regional films, enjoying a national release or even an overseas release, virtually all films having a national audience, are made in Bollywood. It accounts for over 40 percent of the total revenues of the overall Indian film industry, which is currently estimated at INR 59 billion. It is estimated that only INR 50 billion finds its way to the industry coffers, with the balance INR 9 billion being cornered by pirates.
Regional Film
The major regional film industries are Tamil and Telugu, which together earn around INR 15 billion, followed by Malayalam, Bengali and Punjabi. With increased viewer exposure to a plethora of entertainment options on satellite television, the number of regional films produced annually has fallen from around 800, three years ago, to around 650 currently.
English Films
Big budget Hollywood films are beginning to make a mark, with their dubbed versions making inroads into the semi-urban and rural markets. On a cumulative basis, box office collections of foreign films grew in both revenues and number of releases, from INR 1 .5 billion from 60 films in 2003 to INR 1 .8 billion for 72 films in 2004.
With around 12,900 active screens (down from 13,000 in 1990), out of which over 95 percentage are standalone, single screens, India's screen density is very low. In contrast, China, which produces far less films than India, has 65,000 screens, while US has 36,000.

Film marketing is nothing but applying the principles of marketing to films. Contrary to popular opinion it is not only about promotion but namely the marketing mix can be understood as:
A good script is the backbone of the marketing strategy. A well-researched script with a well-woven screenplay is where the core of the film-marketing strategy lies. It is not about who sees the film only, it is also about catering to a definitive audience who watches your film in theatres, and with what frequency. While other elements of marketing focus on attracting these audiences it is this aspect of marketing i.e. ‘the product’ that aims at satisfying these audiences. This is that element that directly relates to the end-user, their needs and wants.
This makes the first element possible. Audiences will be satisfied only when they are attracted to go into the theatre to watch the film. It is ‘placement’ that accounts for attracting the audience into crowding the theatre. ‘Placement’ as a term is used to describe the modus-operandi of placing the communication and promotion strategy of the film on to media and non-media platforms available in the industry today. There is a complete media-mix that should be put into place usually 15% to 25% of the production cost of the film is invested into the marketing of the film in Bollywood. But then there are films like Lagaan, Boom, Out of Control, Khel and others who have spent as much as 40% of their production cost on marketing. But only Lagaan out of all these films became a super-hit and needles to point out that that had a lot to do with the central theme of the film. Today collaborating with one or more media partners in order to ensure maximum focused publicity of the film through certain platforms is generally used.
 The entire media, marketing and communication strategy of the film depends on the positioning of the film. Positioning is that particular slot in the mind of the audience that the film positions it in. This kind of positioning has a lot to do with how well defined your target-audience is. This is covered in detail below. The film by and large should appeal to the sensibilities of all kinds of audience but prominently should be positioned for a well-defined audience. Based on the projected associations with your target-audience you must formulate the ‘positioning’ elements.
It is the central characters (not the actors) of the film that should enable the making of a brand out of your film. There should be a well-defined promotion plan that has to be put-into place for promoting the people of the film (both on-screen and the technical team). The build-up should be such that without over-exposing the team there should be enough flurry of activity that will catapult the audiences into the character of the film even before they see the film. E.g. Aditi not Genelia D’Souza and Jay not Imran Khan became the brands for the movie JaaneTuYa Jaane Na
Public Relations and beyond
A strategic focus on public relations for the film, both media and non-media public relations play an important role in the success of the film. Thus has also been detailed out below in this section.
Partners, Brands and Bollywood
Emotional strategies always have more persuasion power than rational strategies. It has been noticed that films operate at the emotional level. These aspects have been leveraged by brands such as Coke, Pepsi, Lux, Airtel, Hyundai, Bagpiper, Lux wherein movies and brands flash discreet (and sometimes indiscreet) messages at their target audiences. There is a greater effort to break through the clutter of multitudinous brands and media vehicles. There should be a synergy between the brands and the movie and this has been integrated well with many movies like Bajaj Avenger in the movie Heroes.
*Pricing has been excluded from this list as it would fall under marketing for the distributors at the first level and the exhibitors at the second level.

Cinema is a product as well as a medium. It is a great medium of entertainment. Therefore, cinema the product becomes relatively easier to promote1.
 Film marketing is a multi-step process for bringing a film to its audience. It not only defines your product in marketable or sellable terms, it provides the context for fitting the film into the busy marketplace. To be effective, the marketing process must address a great many factors - competitive, political, economic, social, cultural and technological as well.
But it’s not enough to address all the right factors. We also have to start the process at the right time. Many filmmakers don’t see it as an early concern. They think a potential distributor or sales agent will look after marketing duties somewhere down the road. But now it has come up in a big way and many film makers have realized its undue importance
Film marketing works at 3 levels-traders and distributors, corporate branding and promotions and events for the opening. Details elaborated below give a fair understanding of how to market a film using promotional tools and build pre-release hype.
The pre-release hype or marketing is nothing but “curiosity marketing”2. A film is nothing but just another brand like a FMCG/ Lifestyle or hospitality one but the consumption here is definitely only once.
Talking to?
Simply put we all can say that the movie is made for the masses and that it would appeal to people across age groups etc. but there is definitely an underlying target audience that will specifically cater to the particular genre you have made the movie. For. E.g. Yash Raj positioned Dhoom for masses but in reality it was targeted towards the males who enjoyed biking, babes and thrills.
#1 Hindu Business Line, August 24, 2006
#2 Reference: Film Marketing and Promotion, Bruno Chatelin, CEF PF

While applying the formal rules of marketing of segmenting, targeting and positioning, we need to know that we are talking to a bunch of people who are ‘IMPATIENT’. The marketing art has moved beyond art to commercialization and it has become necessary even to package bad films having even worse content to make up for the losses and production costs.
Planning for the movie: What, Why and When
Marketing starts the minute the film is conceived3  before the projects’ creative forces even write the script, they must know what market they intend to target. An effective plan will therefore contain detailed sections on every element you need to address. It will also be taken through different stages, as the film itself moves from stage to stage. Always need to remember that 9% of the population buys more than 50% of all movie theatre tickets, and 78% of a film’s business within a given market takes place in the film’s first two weeks of release4.
1. Position and target
2. Communicate that positioning
3. Getting the date right
Every film is different. Every genre is different and will appeal to a different audience. The trick lies in knowing who will be most interested in watching your product aka the film. No film is for everyone. A film can’t communicate effectively or succeed at the box office unless the maker knows the group of people for whom they are making it for.
#3Interview with Rahul Merchant, Percept Picture Company
#4 http://www.canadianfilmmaker.com/content/view/64 /15 /1/1
Firstly identify the target audience by making an informed guess. Try to figure out whether or not to buy a film’s ticket, the TG would stand in a line up outside, at night, in January to see this film.
Ideally, the people in the line-up are within a particular age range and watch or read similar media (which means the distributor can reach them with targeted advertising). It is important to know which movies they’ve seen, what worked for them, what didn’t and why. We have to educate ourselves about the personality of the audience, knowing who were addressing, what they want and what they were competing against5.
A target audience is defined primarily by gender and age range. Additional elements include socioeconomic status, rural or urban, race, family status, theatre goers or not, and special interests. These interests can include anything from political leanings to religion or the particular subject matter of the film. The following potential marketable elements or hooks can attract a specific audience. Not all hooks apply to every film.
1. Genre: Each genre such as comedy, action, thriller and romantic comedy attracts different audiences and those audiences can be further fragmented.
2. Concept: Think of the originality of The Wednesday or Khosla Ka Ghosla
3. Tone: Best illustrated by examples: Compare Karz to Kudrat
4. Attractiveness of the protagonist to the audience: This hook doesn’t refer to a good-looking star, but to whether the target audience sees themselves reflected in the protagonist. E.g. Rock On
5. Subject matter: Each of Dhoom, Wednesday and Singh Is Kiing attracted a different audience because of the subject explored.
6. Additional elements: covers hooks such as sex (Murder) or use of music (Rock On)
7. Source material: If a film is based on a real event, a best-selling novel, a cartoon or other source material, an audience may already exist.

Targeting could be done basis
    Economics (income & occupation)
    Psychographic Profile (lifestyle, personality, buying motives, product knowledge)

The positioning is nothing but the way the film maker would want to have his film seen by the target audience in a given market. It would be something unique to the movie and that can be qualified into a genre in case of a movie. Positioning a film is an amalgam of the film’s title, its key art (the visual employed in the poster design, the print ad, etc. and its cut line or selling line. Evidently, positioning decides the film’s appeal. It is reflective of audience demographics, the genre the film belongs to, and it’s content. Film marketing is the “merchandising ofemotions”6and comes closest to defining what selling a film essentially constitutes. It only follows that the emotions, which the key art expresses, must hit the right buttons. Since a film is simply a brand with a limited life span, the wrong kind of positioning can result in sudden death, and subsequent repositioning is useless.
E.g. In Dharmendra’s Barsaat, the creative attempted to position Barsaat as a “refreshing love story” with two new stars playing the leads. Unfortunately, no key elements of the film were expressed convincingly, and the close head shots of Bobby Deol and Twinkle Khanna were inappropriate, since they were not familiar faces. The creative actually succeeded in making stars of the two, rather than selling the film7.
 Why position correctly?
The audience is spilt for choice. There are 10 movies running around 18theatres near your house. Why should you be eager to go and watch the 5 one over others? How can you/kids/adults decide thin advance decide what the movie would be like (remember the dialogue with friends - are that movie is surely going to flop·). Positioning right would at-least help the buzz grow from a single base using viral marketing/ ambush marketing or other techniques.

In India the trend has been to release movies like the Hollywood counterparts on Fridays. However this trend has also seen a remarkable shift in recent times e.g. Fashion and Golmaal Returns released on a Wednesday - 29th October, 2008 to cash in on the Diwali bonanza and make most of the money there. However in contextual sense, film marketers have to keep in mind the following things while deciding the date of release:
 1. Season- summers would see a lot of children; June would be ideal for adult and more mature films, family films release through the year, blockbusters generally in Janor Diwali etc.
2. Profile of Viewers- consumptions habits and general behaviour of TG of the movie. Ne surely does not want to have a movie released when the TG would not be able to readily watch it. This is why all Harry Potter films generally release during school vacations or holiday season.
3. Festivals: A lot of movies want to cash in on the festive season and lure audiences e.g. Om Shanti Om and Saawariya.
4. Competitors: Which other films are releasing on the same day so as to pose as a threat to your viewership. Even Hollywood films, new shows on TV and other ‘openings’ will act as competition but more so from direct releases of other films.
5. Sufficient Hype: A lot of marketers wait for the ideal hype to set in before releasing the movie so as to get maximum people in. The media publicity and support vehicles have to be carefully planned before sitting in on the final date.

One step further
Getting the marketing plan right involves detailed strategic thinking and consumer behaviour insights. The following questions need to be answered before embarking on this in entirety.
1. What makes this film unique from others?
2. What is the current marketing environment?
3. What is the competitive edge that the film maker gets through this movie?
4. How well do you think is the film satisfying the needs of the current market conditions (e.g. Paanch did not work 5 years back but Rock on using the same theme has today)
5.What is the competitor positioning and how are you standing out (Remember the slew of Bhagat Singh movies that came one after the other in a span of 2 months…the strongest one eventually ended up having Top of Mind Recall and box office success)
6. How do you want the people to perceive the product after it is made and also its promotions after execution?
7. Vis a Vis other films, how do I want this film to be seen and known in the market?
8. What all information does the audience need to know before my movie is released?
9. What do they need to know about it so that they pay ad come in the first week? 8
This helps in creating connect and eventually one can start designing the remainder of the plan.

And then…Media Planning

It’s then important after you have chalked out the STP (Segmenting, targeting and positioning) to chalk out the strategy as will be explained below in the ‘stages’ to draw up the media plan as well. It is imperative to buy the right media at the right time. E.g. Diwali slots will be booked well in advance and so will the first show a new reality show. Need to capture it at the right time and at right rates. Research and trend reports show that media spends have been skyrocketing but the competition has only toughened. The numbers of channels are increasing and so are the numbers of publications. The number of OOH mediums is multiplying and so are the websites. Multiplex space, retail space, water space…every medium is being used and experimented with so need to always keep that in consideration. Radio slots are relatively cheaper than the television ads and are usually used for mainstream cinema.

The media selection is generally followed by this rule
Mass Media, Posters and TV - 60%
Radio -20%
Cinema - 5%
New Media -15%

The marketing plan progresses as the way the film progresses. Thus it can be divided into 3 stages:
1) Concept
2) Production
3) Release
Preliminary marketing plans should be developed even before the script. Many require a preliminary marketing plan to help evaluate the projects’ viability for funding. This preliminary plan must contain a synopsis, target audience information, release plan information, and the general essence of what makes the story interesting. This will also include an indicative budget for the plan.
The preliminary plan now is developed and execution starts into a full-fledged marketing plan. The distribution, in-film placements, movie promotions, mediums used, posters, trailers, snapshots is developed here. As more and more film elements fall into place, the more detailed the plan becomes. New hooks, plans and strategies are built around the same.
By this time, all the material needed and elements for marketing have been created. The teasers etc. have already been exposed in stage 2 but more and more information in form of capsules, vignettes, posters, song releases etc. is done at this stage, PR activities, festivals, rewards, focus group discussions (if wanting to conduct any), media buys undergo a change. In the last 12-14  days when the movie is about to released there are lot of activities that the marketer plans star interviews, web chats, press shows etc.

‘Anticipation is the most powerful tool in marketing’ - John Reese9
With so many options available for marketing, the marketers are spoilt for choice. But as per research and consumer engagement, what works best is – ‘say the right thing at the right time’. Marketing has to be done for the distribution and trade channels, consumers and also for the in-film placements which earns revenue for the producers. There are several avenues for film marketing in India. For a single film release, a variety of complimentary and promotional options are used. Let’s look at the most commonly used platforms for getting people to the theatres in the first weekend:
These are one of the most commonly and old techniques of reaching the target audiences. Full page/ half page ads in popular newspapers like Bombay Times, Mid-Day, Amar Ujala, Dainik Jagran etc. are a huge way of letting people know that you have arrived and use it to display the poster or ad that has been created. These ads are now also slowly shifting to the internet10. These generally originate from photographs taken during the shoot of a film. Sometimes a copy is also a part of the ads tag lines are key elements of that. Award winning names, directors or star cast is used to highlight the credence of the movie. Quotes from critics are added post release for reinforcing the credibility of movie and make them more effective.

Using it unconventionally
Print ads are now becoming glossier and slick. The look and feel of the print ads now conveys much more than their ancient counterparts. But with rising costs of ad space, people are using more cost effective mediums and are careful while media planning for this. By combining movie contests, creating teaser ads, complete the logos etc.
It started as mere experiment by Yash Raj films but now has become a space for many a movies promotions. Film makers have taken this medium very seriously to promote their movies – so be it Katrina Kaif making an appearance in Baa Bahuaur Baby to promote Singh is King or Amir and Imraan Khan coming to Sony’s Duska Dum which got the highest TRP·s in recent times, it works as a barter deal for both channels and the movie. Some television shows are so popular that even house wives who have not heard of the movie would know of it.

The theatrical trailer is the first movie impression that the consumer creates, hence it is important to get this crafted well. It is the single most cost effective marketing technique which can be played to a captive audience with maximum impact. So be it the slick promo Dhoom 2 created or the well-designed spunky one done by Rock On, theatrical promos need to be released right, packaged correctly and seen on high rotation to get the audiences enthused. An example would be Drona Vs Kidnap where the promos of Kidnap were much more appealing than the former’s and thus the rush at theatres for Kidnap was also much bigger. Theatrical promos are first released in theatres followed by television - news channels, music channels and also GEC’s have become a hit favourite. The television audience is extremely fragmented owing to the number of channels that have proliferated. The 30” ad spot yet remains a favourable option for the film marketers. Audio trailers have also developed for the radio medium for movies as old as Kundan and Maa on Vividh Bharti. Audio trailers have evolved more than commercial radio campaigns to a special tone called ‘movie’. The tone should be such that the cast, the story, the angles should be able to make the listener conjure that image in his mind. It should also create a desire to see the film when it opens

Using it unconventionally
Recently Jaane Tu Ya Jaane Na used eye blaster technology for its trailers - a technology that made Imraan Khan appears as if he is walking out of the screen towards you. This is just one of the innovations that have been applied. Also the medium that has been used for trailers - earlier only television and theatres screens have also undergone a change. In today’s day and age, trailers are seen in malls, OOH screens, digital signage and mobile vans to name a few.

A personal recommendation from a friend, family or reference works as a powerful trigger for watching a movie. So, all film marketers are trying to create the ‘positive buzz’ before the release so that as many people can be influenced. The concept of prosumers is not unknown in cinema now and has been detailed out earlier in the research. A pre-requisite of this to work is high public interest and strong public awareness. A negative word of mouth can be quite fatal as bad news spreads much faster and can be more lethal than expected.

Using it unconventionally:
Word of mouth is now being streamlined through the medium of internet by forums like mouthshut.com, blogs etc. also word of mouth is being influenced by celebrities giving quotes in newspapers and channels about how well the film is and being made other than the people acting and part of the film so as to get more people. Prosumers are now being identified and targeted such that they act as opinion leaders for a select target audience and help propagate positive word of mouth about the movie to be released.

In today’s multi-channel digital environment, there can be a host of outlets for entertainment news and features. The more the films talent is willing and able to support the publicity effort around the world, the better! E.g. spice PR which was working on fashion, made sure all media channels and publications were invited to Siddhivinayak when Madhur Bhandarkar made a visit there with his star cast to seek ‘blessings’ by Lord Ganesha .Publicists compile press kits for journalists, containing cast and crew lists, biographies, notable facts about the production and a synopsis. It’s very important to have a selection of fine images from the film, taken during production by a specially hired unit photographer. Marketers disseminate all these materials for publicity purposes to the various media – national and international.
Editorial coverage of a film can be highly persuasive - the public often accepts independently-written news stories and features more readily than advertising as it is a third party endorsement and PR is said to be more credible than advertising. Also, the space itself is not paid for, in the way that display advertising is paid for. A film’s publicity team, frequently supported by specialist agencies, devises “hooks” for articles and competitions. They arrange press and broadcast interviews with available members of the film’s cast, crew, dress designers, directors etc. and sometimes chaperone artists visiting abroad for junkets or premieres11.
Screenings for national newspaper critics are normally held on the Monday and Tuesday before a film opens to the public; those for writers with longer lead-times are scheduled further in advance. A critics screening is often combined with the star cast screening so that interactions are also facilitated. Many festivals and forums are also used to create a PR image. E.g. IFFA every year helps in the launch of several movies - e.g. Kaante, Plan, Gandhi my Father to name a few.
As with any product development, the film production process is conducted confidentially behind studio doors or on guarded locations. Film sets are normally strictly closed to the public. But makers may have valuable opportunities to visit the set along with key journalists, exhibitors or marketing partners. E.g. A journalist of Mumbai mirror is currently in South Africa for a shoot of an unnamed film of Diya Mirza, Manoj Bajpai and Shabana.

Categorized as an unconventional medium, it is an essential communications channel for the film industry, playing a pivotal role in shaping many cinemagoers’ perceptions of new releases. As one would expect, online interaction is a fast-changing sphere with frequent developments and innovation. Be it social media, blogging, You Tube, Twitter…the list is endless. E.g. Himesh Reshammiya took 70 journalists to London to announce his acting career
Most films have an official website, or perhaps a website hosted by a partner company, containing trailers, stills galleries, production information and often behind-the-scenes footage. Rock On the movie managed to grab quite a lot of attention through its partnering with Big Adda in a similar fashion.
Even before the start of principal photography, film makers may release snippets of news or teaser images online, seeding interest among fans. During shooting, video diaries and blogs may be posted direct from the set, aiming to engage the core audience and gradually accelerating the drip feed of buzz and hype.

Film clips are among the web’s most searched-for content, while more and more user-generated material is posted on social networking websites, drawing comments from a broader public but particularly teenagers. Occasionally, producers invite suggestions via a website and ideas from bloggers have even been known to make it into the film itself. E.g. Aamir Khan asked his fans whether the song by Runa should be part of the film or not on his website.

The moment a finished film is screened, reviews and feedback can be shared instantly and constantly around the world, as the online community swaps opinions in a galaxy of chat rooms. Today more than ever, the consumer is calling the shots! However research has shown that Bollywood has yet not been able to tap the potential of the Internet 2.0 to its fullest yet. Indians search extensively or Hollywood movies but not too many actually will look for information on the Hindi movie front. Wallpaper downloads and trailer downloads for Hindi movies are slowly catching on post the Rock On phase.

OOH is an unconventional medium that has grown by leaps and bounds. Out Of home refers to the billboards, signage, digital boards etc. that have now come up in a big way in metros, mini metros and now even tier II cities. According to a recent survey by Nielson, 90% of audiences recalled an ad they saw on an OOH screen. It is emerging as the medium of the future because the average Indian has now started spending a major chunk of their work/leisure time outside his home and this medium communicates to them in a non-intrusive manner.

Some of the best used examples of unconventional and eye catching marketing in OOH have been for Hollywood movies. Spiderman for its launch in India suspended 200 ft. inflated balloons at malls, Spiderman inflatable’s suspended from the bathroom ceiling window to give an impression of him escaping and loads of merchandise. The marketing campaign also extended to tier Ii cities where the movie was to be released in Bhojpuri! Surely it was a runaway success.

Apart from having a formal music launch and then releasing popular songs on radio and music channels, the internet is being fast used for popularizing the movie. For instance Facebook, YouTube now have posts and videos of the songs even before the final version has been shown on
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Project Details

Department Business Administration and Management
Project ID BAM0515
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
Chapters 7 Chapters
No of Pages 130 Pages
Methodology Simple Percentage
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Project Details

    Department Business Administration and Management
    Project ID BAM0515
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    Chapters 7 Chapters
    No of Pages 130 Pages
    Methodology Simple Percentage
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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