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ACCOUNTING PROCEDURE IN HOTEL

(Accounting)

ACCOUNTING PROCEDURE IN HOTEL

(A CASE STUDY OF ZODIAC HOTELS LIMITED)

ABSTRACT

This project topic on accounting procedure in Hotels under a case study of (Zodiac Hotel Enugu Nigeria Limited) will be discussed under consecutive chapters for clarity purpose.

       Accounting system is essential in every business sector which hotels is not an exceptional due to the important it is in our economy (Nigeria).  There are basic procedures which are needed to be applied in hotel activities so as to determine whether there is profit or loss.

       The introductory aspects of the project will cover the chapter one which includes the background of the study, statement of the problem, research questions, objective of the study, definition of terms and significance of the study as well.  Statement of the problem has to do with the existing phenomenon in the hotel which may either be favourable or unfavourable.

       Chapter two deals with review of related literature, literature review will enable the research to consult other documentaries that are relevant to accounting concepts, business entity concepts the money measurement concept and dual aspect concept, with other information that the researcher will develop on his own.

       Research methodology as chapter three, the researcher methodology has to do with the procedure in which the researcher will adopt in other to collect information from the respondent.  Methods of data collection includes researcher questionnaires, oral interview and observation.

       Furhtermore, sampling will be adopted so as to represent the whole population of the study, the researcher will also determine the sampling size as well as the source of data (primary and secondary data).

       Chapter four as data presentation and data analysis whereby the researcher will present all the information on a tabular form with percentage and frequency column.  All the individual response will be presented, the table and by analyses each of their individual perception.

       Finally, the chapter five as the summary of findings,  will be gathered based on the information sources on the chapter under data presentation and analysis. In addition, recommendation will be prepared to zodiac Hotel on accounting procedure which will be adopted thereby proceeded with conclusion which the research will adopt.  

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter one

1.0      Introduction

1.1      Statement of the problem

1.2      Purpose of the study

1.3      Significance of the study

1.4      Scope and limitation

1.5      Research question

1.6      Definition of term

Chapter two

2.0      Literature review

2.1  The accounting concepts

2.1.1       Business entity concepts

2.1.2                The money measurement concept

2.1.3                Dual aspect concept

2.1.4                The going concern concept

2.1.5                Historical cost concept

2.1.6                The realization concept

2.1.7                The accrual concept

2.1.8                The matching concept

2.2      Accounting conventions

2.2.1                Prudence/conservatism convention

2.2.2                Consisting convention

2.2.3                Materiality convention

2.3      Organization of accounts

2.4      Accounting practice/procedure

2.4.1                Preamble

2.4.2                Cash management

2.4.3                Cash receipts and payment

2.4.4                Purchase of Goods and services

2.4.5                Store keeping and stock control

2.4.6                Sales income

2.4.7                Preparation and payment of salaries and wages

2.4.8                Financial reports and statements

2.5      Chart of accounts

2.5.1                Journals books

2.5.2                The general ledger

Chapter three

3.0      Research methodology

3.1  Population and sample size

3.2      Source of data

3.3      Nature  of data analysis

Chapter four

4.0      Data presentation and analysis

4.1  Preamble

4.2      Hypothesis testing

Chapter five

5.0      Summary of findings

5.1  Recommendations

5.2      Conclusion

Appendix i

Appendix ii

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTROCUTION

The practice of accounting came into existence many years ago though, there was no acceptable definite record as to when accounting developed.  It should be noted that with the advent of colonial rule in Africa, the European system of accounting was introduced in most of the African countries such as Nigeria.  Then, different kinds of people were employed to take care of farms and properties of the Whitman and after that, they have to account for their success so far to their masters because there is a saying that “for every responsibility, there is a saying that “for every responsible, there is always an accountability”.

So if the origin of accounting system is to be trace, if should start from the time people started giving accounts they used in those days cannot be or is not the same as the method we use in this our modern days but can be seen as a base for the modern days account system.

Many definitions have been put forward by various authors of the subject and all seems to have the same meaning.  One of such definitions is that by the American Accounting Association which defined Accounting as “a process of identifying, measuring and communicating economic information to permit informed judgements and decisions by the users of such.

However, the definition could be extended by seeing accounting as “the art of recording, classifying and summarizing, analysing, interpreting and reporting on the financial transactions and position of an organization to interested persons”.  From the definition, it can be observed that all accounting activities involve the use of documentation.

Companies, organizations, institutions and other establishments require the services of accounting information to understand what is going on n the numerous branches, to educate the effectiveness of companies policies on operation and impact of government’s fiscal and monetary instruments.

Accounting information also helps potential investors to put their investments into optimal uses by providing adequate feasibility reports to guide  would be investors.

Now, let us look at the need for accounting information in an organization like Hotels, you will find out that it helps in revealing the amount of profit or loss made and it also deterines the true financial position of the hotel.

1.1  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

       Major problem

       This research study entitled “Accounting procedures in Hotels will try to look into the nature, process, system by which various hotels in Enugu state operate will use of accounting systems and techniques taking a case study of ZODIAC HOTELS LIMITED ENUG.

Sub problem

       As we all know that accounting is a living, practical course, there is need to know the present practices of the profession in such areas, among other as.

1.          Working capital management

2.          Preparation and payment of salaries and wages

3.          Books of accounts

4.          Sales income

5.          Financial report and statements

6.          Assets

1.2     PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The researcher particularly involved myself in the operation of a hotel. Sit is known that the researcher’s particular interest in hotel administration can not be over emphasized.

The purpose or objective of this of this research work is as follows.

i.     To examine the forms they (Zodiac Hotels Limit Enugu) take in presenting their transactions with other parties.

ii.           To determine the accounting system by which the hotel operates in terms of the “accounting concepts and conventions.

1.3     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The researcher promised that at the completion of this projects, it will helps others who have not been  opportuned which the hotels use.

For the future researchers, the work will be useful and  helpful to them because they can make reference to it as they carry out their own work.  It is worthy of note that presently; the researchers work load is  lessened because of the guidelines on this topic that was made available for him.

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.          What is accounting?

2.          what is accounting the r

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