THE NIGERIAN POLICE AND DEMOCRATIC SUSTENANCE IN NIGERIA FOURTH REPUBLIC
This investigation dealt with the Nigeria police and democratic sustenance in Nigeria fourth republic.Chapter one discusses general introduction of the study, background of the study, statement of the problem, research methodology, limitation of the study and definition of terms. Chapter two discussed about the literature review, police as an institution, history of Nigerian police, problems of Nigerian police, police-citizens-relationship.
Chapter three focuses on the method used in collecting data and how the method has been validated, it also discusses the sample and sampling techniques used to sample the general public in Oyo metropolis in which one-hundred and twenty people were used as sample for the study and the instrument designed for the study were questionnaire. In selecting sample for the study, the researcher used simple sample techniques.
Chapter four of this project work concern with question designed for the collection of data and analysis of the overall responses. Summary conclusion and recommendation that the police force should be properly equipped and also given support by the government to enable them to discharge their constitutional duties stated in the chapter five of this study.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Lives and properties of people (citizens) in the country are very important and these must be protected by the government. There should be maintenance of peace and orderliness in the society. This is also the function and duty of government. Every modern state in the world is governed by laws enshrined in a constitution drawn up for the good, orderliness, peace, unity and development of the state and their citizens.
Man is no longer in the state of nature where everyone can just take law into his own hand. There is now sovereign state that makes sure that lives of the people and their properties are secured.
Etannibi (2005) says, police as the critical agent of the state charged with the enforcement of laws and maintenance of orders. There action or inaction has serious implication on citizens.
There are many military and security agencies (the army, navy, air force, civil defense corps, the Nigeria police e.t.c). In the state which are set up to provide internal and external security for Nigerian and Nigeria’s territory. The police is an official security agency whose function is to make people obey the law and to prevent crime. The people who work for this agency are expected to make peace for the citizen.
Police is an institution which is charged with the responsibility of maintaining law and order and also sees to the peace of the society. But over the years and especially in Nigeria the fate of the people about security is very much uncertain.
Many times we hear about cases of organized crimes and criminality every now and then in Nigeria.
Up till today, it is somehow very disturbing that despite the constitutional power granted to the police to maintain public peace, safety and general security in Nigeria the quality of security has nothing to be proud of and it has no doubt generated a great deal of controversies. In the past two decades event confirm a total breakdown of public order and security in Nigeria, the police has not been useful or helpful in promoting its own image before the general public as there were persistent cases of violent robbery, inter-ethnic conflicts, religious crises, extra-judicial killings by security agents, political assassinations.
These constitute major internal threat to public order, maintenance of peace and security. Mostly these are blamed on the ineptitude and inefficiency in the performance of police statutory duties. The civil society as a result tends to find solace in ethnic militias and other ‘self help’ security outfits to provide the much-needed security for their lives and property. The matter is more illogical as there have been instances whereby either robbers or assassins kill some police officers, yet it has failed to unfold the actors behind such scenes. Bearing in mind the enormity of crime problem in Lagos metropolis, all the efforts of government to minimize it and the continuous inefficiency and inadequate of the police are in vain.
The security of Nigeria is not only a necessity but a task that must be vigorously pursued. Nigerian in this sense, included the territory, people and environment, it is only when this is done that democracy can thrive well. The responsibility of securing these components rests on the government. Before independence in most African states, this responsibility was borne by the king or paramount chiefs. This duty covered all aspects of life, health, public safety and external aggressions.
The police which is charged with the responsibility of protecting the lives and properties of the citizen are formed deficient in their function. It is not only that they are involved in crimes they suppose to fight to ensure a crime free society. The citizens who are supposed to be protected by the police have become object of brutality in the hand of the police, they are found exhorting money from the motorists as if is their primary assignment.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The police are the agent of state charged with the enforcement of law and maintenance of order.
However the security agency is facing myriad of challenges that impede its efficient operation. These challenges as identified by E.O. Alemika (2007) include the influence of the autocratic philosophy left by colonial administration with tendencies of incivility, brutality, emphasis on order rather than security and safety of citizens; Inclement Political Environment and Poor Economic Management and Performance.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The aim of the study is to examine the role of police and democratic sustenance in Nigeria’s fourth republic.
To examine the reasons for the poor performance of Nigerian police
To examine the traditional roles and duties of Nigerian police
To suggest solutions to the problems facing Nigerian police
To examine the extent to which the Nigerian police have been able to exercise their statuary function to protect lives and properties.
What are the roles and duties of Nigerian police?
Is Nigerian police performing their roles and responsibility?
What are the factors hindering the Nigerian police in maintaining internal peace and security?
What are the probable solutions to the challenges militating against the proper discharge of functions by Nigerian Police?
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The statutory roles and functions of Nigeria security agency will be the main focus of this study. Hence the study will focus only on Nigerian police.
The methodology that would be employed in this study is social survey. Data for this study would be sourced though the use of questionnaire. This source of data collection is considered more reliable for study at hand as magnitude of information would be gathered from the direct source.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of the study include the following
The study become important as it intends to research into the statutory roles and functions of the Nigerian police and enlighten the citizens on it.
In addition, the significance of this study is noted in the context of examining the factors militating against the proper discharge of roles and functions by Nigerian police. This will enhance government in putting in place effective policies in improving the security agency.
This study will contribute to the academic enterprise on the ways to study security in Nigeria with focus in Nigerian police.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Police: Alemika (2007) are critical agent of state charge with the enforcement of law and maintenance of order.
Brutality: It is the trait of extreme cruelty
Crime: Is an action or omission that constitutes an offense that may be prosecuted by the state and is punishable by laws.
Security: According to Free Encyclopedia it is the degree of resistance to, or protection from, harm, it applies to any vulnerable and valuable asset, such as a person, dwelling, community, nation or organization.
Sovereign state: According to Free Encyclopedia sovereign state is a juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
Peace: Peace is when people are able to resolve their conflicts without violence and can work together to improve the quality of their lives. Peace is also when everyone lives in safety without fear or treat of violence, and no form of violence is tolerated in law or in practice.
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