THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION PROGRAMME IN EDO STATE, A CASE STUDY OF OREDO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE. ABSTRACT This study was carried out to investigate effectiveness of the environmental sanitation programme on the people of Oredo Local Government Area in Edo State of Nigeria. The local government have recently adopted a dynamic approach to the issue of the environmental health problems through self-help and self-initiative. It is hoped that such a self initiative would go along way in minimizing cost, of health care delivery and make health practice real to the people. It is also assumed that such a programme would obviously have some significant effectiveness on the physical psychological and sociological and economic growth and development of the community in which it operates. To investigate these assertions, three hundred (300) people from fifteen (15) different areas in Benin city of the local sanitation task force in different areas were used for the study. At least twenty (20) respondents were randomly selected from each of the sub-areas for the data collection. The instruments use for the collection of data were questionnaires, oral interviews, documentary evidences and participant observation. The data were analyzed using percentage scores. The result of the study show that a dynamic new programme of environmental sanitation indeed exists in Benin City. And it was also found that the programme has contributed significantly towards the physical, psychological, sociological and economic development of the community. Based on the findings of the study it was recommended among other things that: 1. Every community should emulate the urban experiment were by the environmental health care delivery is the responsibility of all the sundry. 2. Children of ender age should be involved in keeping their surrounding clean, in order to “catch them young” towards “Health for all by the year 2,000”. TABLE OF CONTENT Chapter one Introduction Statement of problem Purpose of the study Hypothesis/basic assumption Significance of the study Limitations Delimitation Definition of terms Chapter two Review of related literature Chapter three Methodology Research population Sampling techniques Research instruments Administration of instruments Data analysis techniques Chapter four Data analysis Findings and discussions Chapter five Summary Conclusion Recommendation Bibliography Appendix CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND OF STUDY It is believed that God created man representative to be in control of the environment and make the best out of it. But man in his search for daily bread, quest for knowledge and materials wealth, has turned round to pollute the beautiful environment. From the earliest times man has been striving to control the environment. But as said earlier, man owns the health and life. That is why he found himself from the dragon headed problems he has caused himself in recent times. Environmental sanitation has become a topical subject at international, national state and local spheres. This is aim at initiating action to arrest the fast deteriorating environmental health status worldwide. In Nigeria, today the congestion of people in urban areas which is mainly as a result of rural urban migration the concentration of industrial establishment and share increase in population have made the control of the environment imperative and equally challenging. To improve the general environmental sanitation of the major town in Nigeria has always constituted a big problem to both individual and government with the result that the town/cities are being strangulated by things generated by the inhabitant. The result of this condition is environmental pollution in all its ramification. The problem of pollution has also found its way into the political area and every community in every state has been confronted difficulties of his environment. To the man concern regarding pollution is the adverse effect exerted on the health of the people. The problems of poor sanitation and unhygienic behaviour among the majority of Nigerians are so serious that the federal military government had to come into check the situation towards achieving “health for all by the year 2013” as declared by the world health organization (WHO). Several strategies were mapped out and adopted by the federal government (the military regime in 2013 to achieve this objective. Consequently, the environmental sanitation programmes were mounted throughout the federation. This was followed by the establishment of the “task force on environmental sanitation” at both state and local levels to co-ordinate this elaborate programme. Environmental sanitation committees were appointed with members down from various walks of life. Serious sanitation were imposed on individuals public and private establishment or corporate bodies who fell short of the expected governments guidelines on environmental sanitation or health habits and practices. For instance, dirty filthy private premises dumping of refuse in unauthorized places. Urinating or defecating in public places were punishable by the fine ranging from N 100-1000, or punishment as the case may be. Food hygiene, street trading, unauthorized parking of vehicles were also areas of concern which were also embedded in WAI “War Against Indiscipline” meant to inculcate in people correct healthful living habits, attitude and practices. Later, incentives were put and the programme became competitive in nature among the various state and local government areas of the federal republic of Nigeria. Consciously or unconsciously, most of our town and cities were given some face-lift for sometime. Health implication of their poor health habits and practices the motives of the environmental sanitation programme are often misunderstood to their “statuquo” when they are no longer closely supervised. Infact, the problem of poor environmental sanitation and unhygienic behaviour among the majority of Nigerians have persisted despite the various sanctions or stringent measured taken by governments and other health agencies to enforce a change of attitude among the people. It is important to note too that all the while emphasis has been concern about the mass rural population or communities that contribute significantly to the urban populace, it then stands to reason to assert that the individuals home orientation would also be unconsciously exhibited in a new environment. Hence the neglect of the sanitation crusade at the grassroots level has made the sanitation efforts in most of our town and cities abortive. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS The main concern of the study, therefore is to identify and investigate and find out answer to the following sub problems. 1. The psychological impact of the programme on the life of people of Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. 2. The sociological effectiveness on the people of Oredo LGA by the environmental sanitation programme. 3. The effectiveness of the programme on the economic development of the community. 4. The effectiveness of the Oredo experiment on the physical development of the said community. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The central purpose of the study is to investigate the effectiveness of environmental sanitation programme in the study areas. The main purpose of the study is to; Examine how environmental sanitation is carried out. Investigate the factors militating against the effectiveness of environment sanitation Provide information on how environmental sanitation can be improved upon To investigate the role of government officials in environmental sanitation RESEARCH QUESTIONS How is the environmental sanitation carried out in the study area? What are the factors militating against the effectiveness of environmental sanitation? How can the environmental sanitation be improved upon? What is the role of government officials in environmental sanitation? SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The “Oredo experiment” is a unique venture in the recent time and in the history of environmental sanitation in the urban level. The result of the findings of the study would therefore be useful to not only the government but also to individuals, the public and the community. To the government, it could help in reviewing their former strategies with a view of achieving health for all at a low or no significant cost. The findings and recommendation may stimulate health challenges in other rural/urban community towards inculcating and maintaining health habits and practices thereby advancing lasting solution to the fast global environmental decay. To the community, the study could be a source of motivation that could immortalize the initiative of the people and so this health practice part of the people so this health practice part of the people culture. The result of the investigation could also initiate further research in the health area, in the effort to establishing a more dynamic health culture for the world at large. DELIMITATIONS The environmental sanitation programme is being carried out in the country at national, state and local government levels. The effectiveness of this programme on the lives of the people is also unique to each of the above units. For the purpose of this study, therefore, the researcher limited herself to the effectiveness of physical, psychological, sociological and economic life of the people of Oredo LGA of Edo State. DEFINITION OF TERMS In the course of this study certain operational technical terms were unavoidably used in the write-up to express some views. Those terms have however, been defined therefore the quick understanding of the reader. 1. Catch them young- The act of involving children of tender age in the sanitation activities-aimed at training them to group with good/correct health habits, attitude and practices. 2. Environmental sanitation-the control of all those factors in mans environmental which exercises or may exert a delicious effect on his physical development, health and survival. 3. Influence- The impact made by something through invisible or intangible means. 4. The mass-community Action-A joint cooperative and coordination venture involving all members of the community. 5. Mass-Mobilization-involvement of all able-bodies citizens in carrying out a programme. 6. Modus-operand-The manner by which an activity operated. 7. Pollution- Contamination or unfavourable change in physical, chemical or biological conditions in the environment, which exert may exert harmful effects on the quality of human life. Including effects on other animals, plants, industries as well as cultural and aesthetic assets. 8. Population- A group of individuals of the same species inhabiting in a specific area. 9. Status Quo- The original state of affairs/habits. 10. Task force- A temporary merging of units or individuals under once command with the purpose of accomplishing a specific mission or finding a solution to a particular problem. 11. World Health Organization (WHO) This is the greatest world health organization. It was formed in 1942. After the Second World War. It is an arm of the United Nation organization (UNO) and has its all-independent nations are members.