A SURVEY OF POVERTY AND ITS IMPACT ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN EDO STATE ABSTRACT The study of impact of poverty on academic performance is design to access the causes of poor performance of children from poor background and make recommendation that will in right direction help in increasing their academic performance. The study was carried out in selected primary schools in Egor local government area of Edo State. In carrying out the study hypothesis was postulated based on the objectives and find was drawn based on the home background facilities available, to the child, home economic standard of living and as well as the nation’s economic standard of living. The method used was simple percentage tabulation and data collected was analyzed by means of a questionnaire received from the selected schools in Egor local government area of Edo State. After which conclusion and recommendation was made based on the finding of the research. TABLE OF CONTENT CHAPTER ONE Introduction 1.1 Background of the study 1.2 Statement of the problem 1.3 Purpose of the study 1.4 Significance of the study 1.5 Research question 1.6 Scope of the study 1.7 Limitation of the study 1.8 Definition of terms CHAPTER TWO Literature Review CHAPTER THREE Methodology 3.1 Research Design 3.2 Population of the study 3.3 Sample and sampling technique. 3.4 Research instrument. 3.5 Method of data collection. 3.6 Method of data analysis. CHAPTER FOUR Presentation of Data Analysis CHAPTER FIVE Finding, Conclusion and Recommendation 5.1 Findings 5.2 Conclusion 5.3 Recommendation REFERENCE APPENDIX CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY Poverty has been perceived using various criteria. It may be seen as reflection of alarming deficit in the economy, as evidence in the mass penury, pauperization and poor welfare condition of the citizenry of a particular state. However, oxford learner’s dictionary defined poverty as a state of being poor, scarcity, and lack of particular qualities. In the same vein, poverty is seen as a state of being poor, absolute want. Absent of basic needs of life such as food, clothing and shelter. Obadan (1997), supported this view when he opined that poverty is a situation of low income, consumption, saving and investment. Idada (2008), opined that poverty can be conceptualized as a phenomena that exists at national, community, (state) level, household and individual levels. At the national level, poverty represents a state of socio economic underdevelopment arising from overpopulation, poor natural endowment, poor human and material resources, low and stagnating national income leading to inability of the state to provide minimally decent level of living for the ordinary citizenry (Blar et al, 2008). At the community level, poverty is deprivation arising from environment and natural resource degradation, inadequate access to social security and basic infrastructure, inadequate local employment and income generation opportunities and general appearance of physical decay and wasting of community assets. (Olayemi, 1997:87-88 as cited in by Eregha et al 2007, 70:1). Poverty is a state of household command over resource at a level which is insufficient to obtain a basket of goods and facilities, judges to be minimal necessaries in a contemporary society (Edeko et al 2007, 578). According to medical research council (MRC 2001) cited in Idada (2008), states that poverty prevents individual from reaching their full potentials. It help to deny individual right like those in decision that affect their live and freedom from abuse (Udo 1996). Poverty as it affect individual family also have it tour on child or pupil academic performance as the economic situation of parents and family, also contribution to the learning and socialization of the child. As poverty leads to school dropouts, rape, low performance, low self esteem, low self development and growth, poverty also leads to dreams unactualised, self pity and self defect. The economic situation of parents determines the numbers of facilities which will enable the child learn, for example, young children needs toys that are meaningful to learn and only parents who are economically stable can afford this luxury, again, parents of rich home also employ private teachers for their children and buy textbooks and others that can enable the children to learn at their own pace. (Udo, 1996). 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM There are so many problems associated with poverty which either within short run or long run, which eventually have impact on academic performance of pupils in school such problems are: Children from poor home background lack learning materials like textbooks, educational toys, desk and chairs etc. Parents from poor home do not have time for their children and do not have money to employ home teacher for their wards. Lack of material (poverty) leads to low self esteem. Poverty leads to pupil dropping out of school to help their parents. 1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The study of poverty and its impact is to: The role of government in bridging the equalities gap that exist among individuals. Examine how government should address poverty to improving the academic performance of children. Provide adequate information to students and other classroom teachers in order to improve teaching and learning. To bring to the awareness of people the impact of poverty on academic performance of children. 1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The study of home background on academic performance on children will help the classroom teachers with knowledge of equality and how to cater for the children from poor home background if by the way of improvising low cost learning materials for them to learn. 1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS Does poverty have impact on the academic performance of students? Do parents of poor home background have materials for learning? Does poverty contributes to the number of school dropouts? Do parents from poor home background have time to check on their children or help them with their assignment? Do parents of poor home background employ private teachers for their children? 1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY There are so many schools in Egor local government area of Edo state where this research was carried out. For the purpose of this study, the researcher is confirmed to carry out the study in selected primary schools such as Olua primary school, Edaiken primary school and Adolor primary school are in Egor local government area of Edo state. 1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS Anxiety: The state of feeling nervous or worried that something bad is going to happen. Deficit: The amount by which money is spent or owed is greater than money earned within a particular period of time. Depression: A medical condition in which a person feels very sad and anxious and often have physical symptoms such as been unable to sleep. Economy: This is the relationship between production, trade and supply of money within a particular country or region. GDP: Gross National Product of a state within a fiscal year. Homeless: This is a state of having no home to live or also used to refer to people who have no home. Hunger: This is a state of not having enough food to eat. Especially when it results to/causes illness and/death. Neighborhood: An area one lives or area near a particular place. Pauper: This is used to refer to a very poor person. Penury: This is a state of been very poor. It is a state of abject or extreme poverty. Potential: This is the possibility of something happening or being developed or used. Stagnate: This is to stop making progress or profit or to remain in a position unmoved. Self esteem: This is the actor feelings of being happy with oneself and progress one’s own character and abilities. Welfare: This is the general health, happiness and safety of a person or child. Withdrawal: This is the behavior of somebody who wants to be alone and does not want to communicate with other people.
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