SIGNIFICANCE OF FAMILY PLANNING IN THE CONTROL OF INCREASING POPULATION IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF OREDO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE. ABSTRACT This research was designed to examine the significance of family planning towards the increasing population of Nigeria in Oredo local government area in Edo State. The research instrument used was the questionnaires fourth couples were used for the study. Problems were raised and the results obtained from the study were used to answer the research questions. TABLE OF CONTENT Chapter One Introduction Background of study Statement of problem The purpose of the study The significance of study Research questions Scope of the study Limitations of study Chapter Two Review of Literature Chapter Three Methodology and procedure for data collection Design of Study Sampling procedure Development of research instrument Chapter Four Interpretation and discussion of results Chapter Five Summary of the Research and Recommendation Suggestions for further studies. CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Family planning use is the “intentional prevention of conception through the use of various devices, sexual practices, chemicals, drugs, or surgical procedures”. The concept of family planning is used interchangeably with contraceptives. There are many different types of family planning methods which have so far been developed for the purpose of preventing conception. The current methods in existence have been categorized in to five groups. Firstly, we have “hormonal methods” which are currently being regarded as the most common methods of birth control. (Sai F. 2004). Hormonal methods which appear in the form of Birth control pill, Depo-provera, Lunelle, Vaginal ring all contain manufactured forms of the hormones Estrogen and or Progesterone. All the different types containing the mentioned hormones work in three ways; firstly by preventing woman’s ovaries from releasing an egg each month; secondly by causing the cervical mucus to thicken making it hard for sperm to reach and penetrate the egg and lastly by thinning the lining of the uterus which reduces the likelihood that a fertilized egg will implant in the uterus wall. (Williamson L.M, ParkesA. Wight D. Petticre M; Hart G, 2009) The second category of birth control methods is “barrier methods”. These family planning methods work by physically preventing sperm from entering the female reproductive system. These devices include Male condom, Female condom, Spermicides, Diaphragm, Cervical cap and Contraceptive sponge. The third category of birth control method is “withdrawal” and “sterilization”. Withdrawal involves the removal of the erect penis from the vagina prior to ejaculation; on the other hand sterilization involves the surgical closing, tying or blocking of the fallopian tube so eggs cannot travel through the uterus. There also exists male sterilization which is the surgical closing of tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the penis. The forth category of birth control methods is abstinence. As a means of conception, abstinence is the voluntary refraining from sexual intercourse. This method is regarded as the only family planning method that is 100% effective in the prevention of both pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. The last category of birth control methods is the fertility awareness method which is often called “natural family planning”. Apart from abstinence and withdrawal method, this is the third method that does not rely on devices or medication to prevent pregnancy. The natural family planning method uses the natural functions of the female body and menstrual cycle to calculate ovulation. It requires abstinence from sexual intercourse during the ovulation period. (Williamson L.M, ParkesA. Wight D. Petticre M; Hart G, 2009). According to Gribble J and Haffey, J. (2008) Demographers regard withdrawal and abstinence as traditional methods while the other methods are regarded as modern methods of contraception. The vast majority of the African countries and national governments encourage citizens to make use of available family planning methods to promote small family sizes and prevent unwanted pregnancies. All these come as an overall initiative to slow population growth and avoid some of the consequences of population growth. A combination of good access to family planning services and increased family planning use has led to a decline in fertility rates in Southern India and Sri Lanka. Access to good quality, voluntary family planning services and increasingly higher levels of family planning awareness are credited for supporting declines in family sizes. For fertility to fall to low levels, many factors are key, this include a significant increase in the use of family planning. Sufficient evidence exist to show that the high fertility in the African continent is not because women in Africa want to have more children than women in other regions; the skewed rates I argue reflect the prevalence of family planning use as well as challenges in accessing family planning services in this particular region. Clearly most people in developed countries want and are having smaller families than in the past. This development has been greatly helped by the wider availability of high quality, safe and affordable family planning services in some regions. However the opposite is observed in some other regions such as Africa; many people are still having more children than they want. (Gribble J.; Haffey James 2000) The 2008 estimates indicated that sub-Saharan Africa had about 14 million unintended pregnancies, with almost half occurring among women aged 15-25 years. Today, there are 24.8 percent of women who want to use family planning but lack access leaving them with no other options but to continue having unwanted pregnancies. According to the Millennium Development Goals report, one in four women who wish to delay or stop child bearing is not using any family planning method. Achieving the desired population growth rates will require expanded access to family planning especially in the poorest countries. People regardless of their age must have access to a wide range of family planning methods at all stages of their reproductive lives. The impact access to family planning has on the rate of fertility in sub-Saharan Africa is of vital importance; it therefore requires urgent attention from national governments. The African continent should bear in mind that the more women use family planning, the less fertility rate, natural increase and growth rate in Africa. (Dodoo, F. N 2001). Family planning has been a common problem with the developing countries in the world, due to lack of family planning the population of the developing countries using Nigeria as a typical example when unchecked increased geometrically. The lack of family planning which led to an increase in Nigeria population is as a result of lack of women education, poverty etc. It is a common observation to everybody that what we often say is a blessing could turn to be a curse as in the case of the increasing population of a country. The only way this can be prevented is through the use of birth control or family planning and this is one of the major way in which Nigeria population can be reduced. One question that always comes to my mind is that if fertility is not controlled and it grows beyond its carrying capacity, then there will be a huge problem in population control, as we all know over populations a problem to a country especially the developing countries. The above mentioned facts has led the researcher into the topic; family planning as an agent of reduction of the increasing population in Nigeria, a case study of Oredo Local Government Area. It is important to know that whatsoever happens in any society always begin from the family. However, another question that can really come to mind is this. What is family planning? Though many authors has defined it in various way. Family planning is defined as a process whereby parents or couples have their children by choice and not by chance by this we mean that couples can control the number of children they want and when they want them. Though more people use family planning than ever before. More than half of the couples in the developing countries use family planning today compared with 10% in the 1960s. This dramatic increase in family planning use has caused fertility to decline much more rapidly in the developing countries and if this is achieved it can lead to the attainment of optimal population which is the best type of population in both developed countries and developing countries. 1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Over a long period of time the issue of family planning as been neglected because so many believe that children are blessing from God and children are to be given birth by chance and not by choice which is the opposite of family planning and this as an effect on the Nigeria population. Hence this research work is carried out in order to know if the people are still in the shadow of ignorance over the facts of family planning through the data collected and also to enlighten the populace of the importance, harmlessness of proper family planning to the society and to oneself. 1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The general purpose of this study is; To enlighten the public on the meaning of family planning. To examine the family planning facilities available To examine the benefit of family planning to Nigeria as a country to oneself. To identify the barriers attached to the use of family planning. 1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The findings of this study will be immensely important to all those connected with family planning control most especially the health works. Information gathered from this project will help educate the illiterate couples and also the literate couples, it will also give the general public on the importance of family planning in the society. The researcher who will want to carry out further research into this project topic. The information available from this project will add to the pool of data or ideas to be used in planning and developing the general public. 1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION 1. How profound is your knowledge in the issue of family planning? 2. Is the general public still ignorant to the issue of family planning in the modern world? 3. What are the effect or barriers of family planning to the society and to our self? 4. Does family planning has any barriers on women? 5. has there been proper awareness on the use of family planning in Oredo Local Government Area? 6. Does the government have a role to play in the issue of family planning? 1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY The focus and coverage of the research work is on Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. It examines the significance of family planning as an agent of population reduction in Nigeria. The research selected the following communities for the study; Ugbowo, Ekiadolor Oluku Iguosa and Idowina. All in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. 1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS Family Planning: It can be define as a situation whereby couples decides to have their children by choice and not by chance. Agent: In this context agent means a force that causes a change. Contraceptive: A device or drug serving to prevent pregnancy. Population: Is the total number of people who live in a particular area, city or country. Control: The power to make decision about how country an area, an organization is run. Increasing: To make greater in amount or value.
SIGNIFICANCE OF FAMILY PLANNING IN THE CONTROL OF INCREASING POPULATION IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF OREDO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE.
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