THE CAUSES, EFFECT AND SOLUTIONS TO POPULATION INCREASE IN NIGERIA

(Public Administration)

THE CAUSES, EFFECT AND SOLUTIONS TO POPULATION INCREASE IN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This research work was designed to find out the causes, the effects of population explosion on the Nigeria economy as well as some ways in resolving or reducing population explosion. In carrying out the research work, the researcher visited Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State, whereby questionnaire were used to collect data from some matured persons in the area, reason being that the whole population of the local government could not used, the data collected were  analyzed in tabulated form. From the table analysis, it was observed that early marriage, illiteracy, lack of family planning, polygamy etc, are the major causes or reasons for the rapid increase in population. The effect of population explosion has become a great concern that the planned economy may not be able to sustain the present population. Hence the following recommendations were made such as more emphasis should be made on female education, provision of jobs for both male and female in the society, monogamy system of marriage should be  practiced, family planning also should be emphasized by couples and the government.    

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE 

Introduction

Background to the study

Statement of the problem

Purpose of the study

Significance of the study

Research question

Scope of the study

Limitations of the study

Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO

Review of related literature

The reasons for rapid increase in population

The effect of continuous increase in population on Nigeria economy

Ways of resolving the problems associated with population

CHAPTER THREE       

Research design

Sample of the study

Sampling techniques adopted

Instrumentation

Validation of instrument

Method of data collection

Method of data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR                   

Data presentation, analysis and interpretation

CHAPTER FIVE          

Summary

Conclusion

Recommendations

REFERENCES            

QUESTIONNAIRES           

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

        Population is a summation of all the organism of the same group or species, which live in the same geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.

        In sociology, population refers to a collection of human being in respect to human population, population can be defined as the total number of people in a given country city by (Obueh 2011)

        The size and structure of human population have been completed changed by a number of factors including higher incomes, improve nutrition, safe and sufficient water and sanitation, wider availability of immunization, high effective drugs against infections, diseases, increased education and technological development. Hence, one can say that the economic growth of a nation is significantly dependents on the growth of its population.

        Population growth: Is the change in a population over time, and can be quantified as the change in the number of individuals of any species in a population using “per unit time” for measurement.

        The world population grew from one billions to seven (7) billion from 1800 to 2011. During the year 2011, according to estimated, 135 million people were born and 57 million died for an increase in population of 78 million.

        The world population is the total number of living humans on earth. As of today, it is estimated to number 7.101 billion by the Untied State Census Bureau (USCB) estimates that the world population exceeded 7 billion on March 12, 2012.

        Current UN projections show a continued increase in population in the near future, with the global population expected to reach between 8.3 and 10.9 billion by 2030.

        The world’s population is growing substantially every years, but the pace of growth varies from one region to another, some countries have gain population and as a result face future decline, while others still have young and rapidly growing populations each situation is associated with its own set of social, economic, environmental and political challenges.

        According to the United Nations, World population reached seven (7) billion on October 31, 2011. The US census Bureau made a lower estimate for which the 7 million mark was only reached on March 12, 2012.

        Nigeria is one of the fasted growing and most population populous country in the world, with an estimated population of 166.21 million and the population is mainly in the youthful category.

        Nigeria is also the most populous country in Africa, being one sixth of Africa population (or one fifth of sub-Saharan Africa population). Approximately, 50% of Nigerians are urban dwellers. At least 24 cities have populations of more than 100,000 the variety of customs languages and traditions among Nigerian’s 389 ethnic groups gives the country a cultural diversity, Nigeria suffers from a population explosion, with a current population in excess of 170 million (2012) and a growth rate of about 30 years), with all the associated problems such as youth bulge, crime, ethnic tension and high emigration.

        The world population and the top ten countries with the highest population, the ten countries with the largest population in world are listed in the table below.

TEN COUNTRIES WITH THE HIGHEST POPULATION JUNE 30, 2012 OR MID 2012  

Country

2000

2010

2012

2050

 

Population

Population

Population

Expected population

China

1,268,853,362

1,330,141,295

1,343,239

1,303,723,332

India

1,004,124,224

1,173,108,018

1,205,073

1,656,553,632

United States

282,338,631

310,232,863

313,847,465

439,010,253

Indonesia

213,829,469

242,968,342

248,645,008

313,020,847

Brazil

176,319,621

201,103,330

193,946,886

260,692,493

Pakistan

146,404,914

184,404,791

190,291,129

276,428,758

Nigeria

123,178,818

152,217,341

170,123,740

264,262,405

Bangladesh

130,406,594

136,118,464

161,083,804

233,587,279

Russia

146,709,971

139,390,205

142,517,670

109,187,353

Japan

126,729,223

126,804,433

127,368,008

93,673,826

Top ten countries

3,618,894,827

4,016,489,082

4,096,137,325

4,950,140,178

Total world population

6,084,907,596

6,845,609,960

7,017,846,922

9,256,342,700

 

        From the data presented, it shows that Nigeria population would double in 2050, due to the young age structure and fertility level causing high birth rates. This suggests that population growth would be on issue of central concern for Nigeria in time to come.

        To remain at current per capital levels, agricultural production, industrials and other economic output and provision of health and other social services would all have to double also.

        It is against this background, that this study was initiated to find out the effects of population explosion in Edo State, Nigeria.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 

        While it cannot be disputed that the rapid growth of population over the past years all over the world results from a different between the rate birth and death, the growth human population around the world, affects all people through its impacts on the economy and environment.

        The current rate of population growth is now a significant burden to human well being. There sis a clear indication that in Nigeria, parents disposition. Toward childbearing was competitive to have as many children as possible. This seemingly attitude of parents and other factors like increase in food production, improvement in public health and medical technology succeeded in reducing the rate of death which has lead to increase population growth.

        However, the problem of population explosion is not far fetched, Nigerians are not well educated on the need to control their birth rate and the effects it has on them and the society. The government can no longer provide adequate infrastructure for its citizen as a result of the explosion in population; unemployment is on the increase as well as crime.

        In addition, marrying of many wives (polygamy) illiteracy among couples, people attitude to family size, socio cultural practices, early marriage and religious belief are also problems responsible for the explosion in Nigeria’s population.

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY  

        The following constitute the purpose for which his research was carried out.

  1. To examine the reasons for rapid growth in population.
  2. To know whether this continuous increase in population has any effect on the economy.
  3. To suggest some of the ways of resolving the problems associated with population.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 

        This study provides information about the reasons for the rapid population growth. It also helps the researcher and readers to know whether socio-cultural practices and beliefs have led parents to support more children. The study also helps to ascertain whether population growth has effect on the economy and to what extent is has affected the economy. it enlightens the researcher on how to solve the problems associated with population explosion in Edo State.

        Also, the significant of this would make people become familiar with the reasons for population study and the benefits associated with them.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS 

  1. What are the reasons for rapid growth in population?
  2. What are the effects of continuous increase in population on the economy?
  3. What are the solutions to the problems associated with them?

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

        This researcher analysis is expected to cover the effects of population explosion in Nigeria with the particular reference to Ikpoba Okha local government area in Edo State.

DEFINITION OF TERMS 

Population: This is the total number of organism of the same kind in a given habitat.

Population Growth: This is the rate at which a population is increasing or decreasing in a given year due to natural increase and not migration, expressed as a percentage of the base population.

Human Population: This can be defined as the total number of people in a given community at a particular time.

Explosion: A large sudden or rapid increase in the amount or number if something.

Populous: This is where a large number of people live (densely populated)

Data: These are facts or information especially when examined and used to find out things or make decisions.

Effect: This is defined as a change produced by an action or other cause.

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