PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY PROPERTIES OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF CRATEVA ADANSONII STEM BARK

(Bio-Chemistry)

PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY PROPERTIES OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF CRATEVA ADANSONII STEM BARK

ABSTRACT

Inflammation is a complex biological response of vascular tissue to harmful stimuli such as pathogen, damage cells or irritants. The urgency generated by in increased rate of stroke, atheroselerosis attributed to prolong use of cyclooxygenase-1 and 2 inhibitors have acceralated anti-inflammatory drug research over the last decade while synthetic pharmaceutical agents continued to dominate research, attention increasingly has been directed to natural products. These are often more affordable and available and sometimes are perceived as more effective than conventional anti-inflammatory drugs.

Anti-inflammation was carried out using 11 rats. That was divided into three groups of four rats each. Group 1 and 2 served as the positive and negative control respectively. Groups 3 and 4 received 200mg/kg b.w and 600mg/kg b.w. of the extracts respectively. However, it was discovered that the stem bark of crateva Adansonii showed greater significance anti-inflammatory activity when compared with the standard.

  

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

                   
                 
                   
                 
                   
                 

CHAPTER ONE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.0

Introduction

-

-

           

1.1

Types of inflammation

           

1.2

Aims and objectives

           

1.3

Rational study -

-

           

1.4

Taxonomy

 

-

-

           

1.5

Physical description of crateva adansonii

   

1.6

Distribution

               

1.7

Cultivation

               

1.8

Uses of crateva adansonii

         

 

                   

 

1.9

Sources

-

-

             

CHAPTER TWO

 

             

Literature review

-

-

           

2.1 types of inflammation

           

2.2

Events in acute inflammation

         

2.3

Increased blood flow and from

       

2.4

Chemotaxis

-

             

2.5

Eosinophils

-

             

2.6

Benefit of inflammation

-

         

2.7

Anti-inflammation agents

         

2.8

Steroids

-

-

-

-

         

 

2.9   Non-steroidal anti-inflammation drugs (NSAIDS) 

 

2.10  Immune Selective Anti-Inflammatory

 

Derivatives (IMSAID)   -

-

         

2.11

Anti inflammatory diet

 

-

-

     

2.12

Natural anti-inflammatory supplements

   

2.13

Benefits of non-sterodial anti- inflammatory

 

2.14

Mediators of information

         
               

 

2.15

Cytokines

-

             

2.16

Histamine

-

             

2.17

Arachidonic acid

             

2.18

Nitric oxide

-

             

 CHAPTER THREE

 MATERIALS AND METHODS

 

3.1

Materials  -

-

             

3.2

Methodology

-

             

3.4

Column chromatography

-

       

3.5

Phytochemical analysis of the extract

     

3.6

Thin layer chromatograophy (TLC)

     

3.7

Anti-inflammatory activity test

-

     

3.8

Thin layer chromatography (TLC) -

     

 CHAPTER FOUR

 4.1 The effect of methanol fraction of methanol

 

extract of crateva adansonii ion acute inflammation

67

 

of rat paw.

 

 

 4.2 Phytochemical analysis of extract -    

4.3 Phytochemical analysis of dichloromethane fraction

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.1

Discussion

               

5.2

Conclusion

               

References

 Appendix

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

  1.0 INTRODUCTION

 

Anti inflammatory refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation. Anti –inflammatory drugs make up about half of analgesics, reducing pain by inhibiting inflammation as opposed to opioids, which affect the central nervous system published by Artemis Morris, molly Rossiter.

 

Inflammation (Latin, inflammo, “ the complex biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. The classical signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling and loss of function by Dr Weil. Inflammation is a protective attempt by the organism to remove the injurious stimuli and initiate the healing process.

Inflammation is not a synonym for infection, even in cases where inflammation is caused by infection. Although infection is caused by a microorganism, and organism pathogen.

 

Inflammation is a setereotyped response and is considered as a mechanism of innate immunity by Dr. Weil.

 1.1            TYPES OF INFLAMMATION

  Inflammation can be classified as either acute or chronic. Acute inflammation, is the initial response of the body to harmful stimuli and is achieved by the increased movement of plasma and leukocytes (especially granulocytes) from the blood into the injured tissues.

 

Prolonged inflammation, known as chronic inflammation, leads to a progressive shift in the type of cells present at the site of inflammation and is characterized by simultaneous destruction and healing of the tissues from the inflammatory process from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

 1.2.         AIMS AND OBJECTIVES.

 

Evaluation of the anti –inflammatory activity of crateva adansonii (plant). The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous sten bark extract of crateva adansonii in experimental acute and chronic inflammatory animal models. And to evaluate the phytochemical constituents and pharmacological evaluation of the effect of crateva adansonii on albino rats.

 

1.3            RATIONAL STUDY.

 

Crateva adansonii was described in 1824 by Augstin Pyramus de candolle. Crateva adansonii is a specie of a flowering tree in the capparancea family, which is equ pear and temple plant,” and many dialects, including Balai lamoke, barnaj Vanina and bidasi. The tree  is  sometimes  called  the  spider  tree  because  the  showy flowers  bear  long,  spidery  stamens.  It  is  native  to  Japan,

Australia, much of South East Asia and several south practice Islands India it is grown else where for fruit, especially in parts of the African continents.

The fruit of the tree is edible. The flowers are attractive to a multitude of insects and birds. The butterfly (Hebomoia glaucippe) is a frequent visitor to this plant by Dr. Weil.

 1.4            TAXONOMY

 

Crateva Adansonii is a species in the genus crateva, which contains 8 species and belongs to the family of Capparacea (caper family)

 

 

Plantae

 

Angosperms

 

Eudicots

 

Rosids

 

Brassicales

 

Capparaceae

 

Crateva

 

C. religiosa

The taxonomy of crateva adansonii for classification includes the

following;

 

Kingdom:

Division:

Class:

sub-class:

Order:

 

Family:

 

Genus:

  Species:

1.5            PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF CRATEVA ADANSONII

 

  

Unarmed, small deciduous tree, 6-15m tall, glabrous leaves 3 – foliolate, petiolate, leaflet shorty petiolulate, elliptic, elliptic – lanceolate, more or les olique, acuminate/ narrowed towards the base, 5-12m long, (1-) 2.5 -6cm broad, herbaceous to subcoriaceous, often turning brownish when dry, petiole (2.5) 4 - 8cm long flowers. 3-6cm across, sub irregular greenish white turning yellowish after opening appearing before or just after the flush of new leaves, pedicle 2-4cm long, 10-17mm wide, 2 adoxial ones generally what larger stamens usually 20-25, gynophore generally 3-5cm long, slender thickened in fruit. Fruit globose, 3-5cm in the development of fruit. Yellowish seeds reinform at about 3-4mm in diam smooth brown. The flowers are green and are arranged in racemes. The fruits are berries.

1.6                        DISTRIBUTION

  Crateva adansonii is native to tropical Africa, India, Srilanka, Myanmar, Japan, Australia and much of South East Asia.

1.7                      CULTIVATION

 Crateva Adansonii can withstand temperatures only above 1 -

 20C. The plants bloom from March to May.

1.8                      USES OF CRATEVA ADANSONII

Crateva adansonii is used in traditional medicine in the West Africa. The crude Hexane (CAN -1) and ethyl acetate activity has African trypanosome, Trypansomia brucei brikes and forms blood stream. The crude extracts showed moderate anti-trypansomaluse activityaloneorincombination. It’swithother natural/ semi –synthetic drugs for the treatment of human Africa.

Crateva adansonii fruit serves as an edible fruit which contains berries Published by Flora of Taiwan, National Taiwan University.

 

1.9                   SOURCES

  From wikipedia, The free encyclopedia bing pdf  and articles of Health.

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