EFFECT OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY ON EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT OF YOUTH IN EGOR LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
This issue of teenage pregnancy in our contemporary society has been considered an epidemic and endemic in nature, which constitutes social problem that should requires social action for amelioration.
Moreso, this study focuses on effect of teenage pregnancy on educational attainment of youth, Because, the rate of youngsters (students) especially female dropping out of schools has been on the increase. And having considered the political, socio-economic and socio-cultural effects. It should be a matter of concern to individual parents, teachers, churches, mosque, non-governmental organization (NGOs) and groups.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of Problem
1.3 Purpose of Study
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.5 Research Question
1.7 Limitation of Study
1.8 Definition of Terms
2.1 Literature Review
2.2 Low Level of Teenagers Education
2.3 The Government Influence
2.4 Influence of Schools Administration
2.5 Poor Parental Socio-Economic Background
2.6 Mass Media Influence
2.7 Peer Group Influence
2.8 Sexual Activity
2.10 The Use of Contraception
2.11 Family Planning Services
2.13 Sexually Transmitted Diseases
2.14 Summary of Literature Review
3.2 Design of the Study
3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique
3.5 Validity of Instruments
3.6 Reliability of the Instruments
3.7 Method of Data Collection
3.8 Method of Analyzing the Data
4.2 Data Analysis
4.3 Discussion of Findings
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1.9 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Teenage pregnancy among youths in Nigeria has assumed an alarming proportion in recent years. A careful observation of the unfolding scenario of history would reveal the complexity of the problem which is even more glaring by the fact that is occurrences seems of double edge sword to the victims family, community and the nation in general. Meakers and Armed (1999).
A teenager is one who have attained between the ages of 13 – 19 years which is also regarded as “adolescence” period that is characterized with puberty experiences.
According to psychologist, regard this period to be more dedicate in the life of every individual as it precede and determines adulthood personality and adjustments. Horrocks (1975) with this, adequate guidance and counseling is needed whereas if lacking many lead to maladjustment. A Haurlock (1982) it is a period of adjacent storm, stress and crises when one grope, for adjustment in order to meet the demanding physical, mental, social, emotional, political, and economic standard. Therefore the need for adequate paternal and maternal care for teens cannot be overemphasized.
In many parts of the world, the problem of teenage prostitution and pregnancy has been a frightening reality. The results are tragic and often times involve them in crime and drug abuse. Many of them feel frustrated and worthless, seeing little or no prospect of escaping their wretched lives. Influential personalities recognize the devastating effects of teenage prostitution and pregnancy Brazils ex-president, Fernando Henrisque Cardoso aptly stated, child prostitution is a barbarous crime. Also a Brazilian newspaper published this sobering comment about child prostitution countries where such a practice is common, tolerated, accepted and even bought after because of the money it beings experience every day the devastation that it causes awake, child prostitution a tragic reality (Feb. 8, 2003).
Despite the noble intentions most well individuals and groups to curb the phenomenon still stands in a growing rate. What leads to this horrific situation? Why do so many tolerate and even promote such a suicidal and genocidal behaviour. There has been jingles in day to day radios and television stations and such more plethora reports in newspapers about the ugly trend of teenage pregnancy among youths. Effort put in place has seem on difference, as a great number of students untimely withdrawing out of school in a massive manner. Not only limited to the females but along with their males counterparts who in collaboration involves in the act. L. l. Lauries, (1985).
Lloyd and Menseh (1999) believed that the nature of the school, a girl or boy attends is presumed to be important because the negation process around sex. The description of this process is that girls “give in” to boys in exchange for gifts money transit.
Inevitable the consequences is said to be unmeasurable as it send many to grave others who end up with the complications of pregnancy and childbirth including infertility, pelvic infections and chronic pain, obstetrician Olubukola Fawole (2001).
Former, minister of health Dr. Ransome Kuti said that adolescent girls are victims of 50% of all maternal deaths in Nigeria. Early pregnancy in these young females result in very high mortality due to obstructed labor and other obstetric complications. Also, among girls below age 19, 72% of all deaths result from abortion complications. In addition to teenage pregnancy, other factors responsible for high maternal mortality in Nigeria include low education levels, poverty, lack of access to good health are and harmful traditional practices such as genital mutilation and especially early marriage.
In Nigeria increased unprotected sexual activities among males and females adolescents leading to unwanted pregnancy and illegal abortion is posing serious health problems.
Approximately 610,000 abortions are performed in Nigeria annually, 60% of which are thought to be unsafe the maternal mortality ration in Nigeria is 1,500 deaths per 100,000 live births, of these 12% are estimated to be due to unsafe abortion.
In some series, unsafe abortion accounted for up to 40% of maternal mortality, the average unsafe abortion morality ration in Africa is 110, deaths per 100,000 live following unsafe abortion in Nigeria is said to be worrisome.
World Health Organization (WHO) 1993, education of teens could play a vital role, according to Universal Basic Education (UBE) policy on education (1981) specify equal right of every one to education. But this is reverse in practice as many female teens has been forced to withdraw out of school, due to pregnancy, which is the leading proximate cause of female early dropout of school. And many other reasons are absence of social and economic opportunities for girls and woman and the demand placed on them, coupled with the gender. Inequalities known to exist within the educational school experience, poor academic performance and resignation to preference and resignation for early motherhood.
Therefore although pregnancy is often though to disrupt the education of adolescent girls, teenage reproductive behaviour may be endogenous to school completion in that many of the same factors tend to drop out and early child bearing. Lloyd and Mensch (1999). However, the need to untangle the issue of teenage pregnancy has down on us undisputable major concern that is germane to our task of explaining and ascertaining the causative factors, and solution to ameliorating the menacing ugly trend among youths in Edo State.
Secondary school students in Edo States are mostly between the ages of 12 – 18years, which makes them teenagers or adolescents secondary school female students in Edo State are vulnerable for reasons such as home background, economic situation, peer group (mixed secondary schools). Thus exposes them to early pregnancy.
1.10 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
This study is geared towards investigating into the effect of teenage pregnancy on educational attainment of youth in Egor Local Government Area of Edo State.
It is no doubt a social malady playing our entire society. Hence, the need to explore the underlying factors and solutions for the degrading phenomenon is undisputable, several ways of its correction and eradication has been widely acknowledged in literature.
1.11 PURPOSE OF STUDY
The purpose of the study was to find out the problems of teenage pregnancy among youths of Edo State. It will consider the predisposing factors responsible for teenage pregnancy. Also to seek measures of addressing the menace to the barest minimum in our society, precisely in Edo State in particular.
School age girls who become pregnant come from all socio economic classes of all race and all parts of the country. (Rural and Urban). Many teenagers are facing the dilemma of unwanted pregnancy and unwanted parenthood.
Parents, the society and the nation, and the world in general are affected by them directly or indirectly, and their choices will have significant consequences for the future of their communities, their countries and the rest of the world.
1.12 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The essence of this study is that it finding would be of tremendous assistance to educators, teachers, parents, guidance, government, Youths in Edo State and beyond. Should the resultant recommendations are considered and appreciated; the good image of the state will be protected through educational standard and manpower improvement. Parents would stand the changes of enjoying the fruit of their womb and labour, as there will be no longer untimely withdrawal from school, less health hazards among youths (female teens), less economic waste and personality degradation.
The school management would be proud of their academic standard since reliable and enviable products would be emerging out of the school in a dramatic manner. Also the government would be relieved of the pressure of meaningless and extravagant spending on family planning services, chemotherapeutics drugs and equipment, adoption laws and regulations, sex education and the like.
1.13 RESEARCH QUESTION
In the course of this study to unravel the effect of teenage pregnancy on educational attainment of youth in Egor Local Government Area of Edo State., the following questions are intended to be investigated.
1. Does teenage pregnancy affect the academic performance of female youths?
2. Is the school administration responsible for teenage pregnancy?
3. Does poor parental social-economic background also contribute to the high rate of teenage pregnancy among youths?
4. Does influence of peer group has to do with teenage pregnancy in our schools?
5. Do the mass media influence responsible for teenage pregnancy among youths in Edo State?
6. Could the educational level of female teens responsible for teenage pregnancy among teenagers?
This study is designed to embrace all SSS I – III female youths of Egor Local Government Area, Edo State.
The students age range fall between the bracket of 13 – 19years with high variance.
1.15 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Mortality Ratio: Is the number of deaths recorded in a population of people over a given period of time.
Puberty: It is the onset of menarche for girls and the first experience of nocturnal emissions for boys.
Suicidal Behaviour: It is the behavioiur vulnerably inimical to one’s survival.
Genocidal Behaviour: It is the behaviour that could vulnerable estimate a race of people (nation).
Peer Group: People of the age with similar background and interest.
Contraception: It is the practice or methods employ deliberately to prevent pregnancy.
Ectopic Pregnancy: A fertilized ova developing outside the womb (uterus) as conception.
Abortion: It is the premature expulsion of (embryo, placenta etc) from the uterus of conception before 28th weeks of gestation.
Pornography: Presentation of image or pictures exposing sexual parts of human body.
Adolescence: A time of discovery of self, of feeling and of the complexities of society usually occurring between the ages of 13 – 18 years. This period of psychological maturation.
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