AN APPRAISAL OF THE EFFECTS OF ETHNICITY ON THE PERFORMANCE OF OIL COMPANIES IN NIGERIA.
The ability to use appraisal to develop and motivate employees is a core management skill. Constructive feedback or performance is vital if staff are to build on their strength achieve their full potential and make the maximum contribution to their organization.In Nigerian organization, certain factors has been identified that render the performance appraisal system ineffective. Ethnicity has been studied as factors that affect the performance studied as a factor that affect the performance appraisal system. The various concepts of ethnicity has be also determined in this study.The method that I used to obtain the information or data was primary and secondary data due in experimental survey method.The study established to an extent, ethnicity has strong effect on the performance appraisal system of an organization. Indeed, Appraisal method/Techniques lay down cannot always be followed because of ethnicity, Appraisal results cannot be influenced to favour or against a particular ethnic group; Disciplinary action are overlooked in dominant ethnic group; Job condition ethnic group and motivation is more in the same ethnic group motivation is more in the same ethnic group. Although this measure is to measure the impact of ethnicity on the . appraisal performance system .Base on the findings, I will recommend that the working environment should be made pleasant to employees irrespective of their ethnic group; communication gab between the subordinate and departmental heads have to improved, so that an attempt is made to discuss constructively whether expected results predetermined were met exceeded or not. Apart from wages and salaries and promotion other forms are incentives, such as training the workers. Should be given to subordinate to arouse their interest in their job. Department heads should be able to concentrate on area needed to facilitating the growth and development in employees training and coaching feedback of appraisal information and present system of appraisal should be reviewed to ensure that merit and capabilities of the subordinates are given greater weight in determining who should be give due position irrespective of ethnic affiliation.Above all, the performance appraisal should be known and understood as a result oriented tool for individual irrespective of ethnic affiliation and organizational growth otherwise, encounter productive particularly, if the findings is focused on the personality, and mannerisms on the incumbents in the relation with ethnicity, rather on the aspects of to related behaviour.
1.2 Context of Problem
1.3 Statement of Problem
1.4 Purpose of the Study
1.5 Test of Hypotheses
1.6 Research Questions
1.7 Definition of term
1.8 Significance of the study
1.9 Scope and limitations of the study.
2.2 Importance of performance Appraisal
2.3 People connected with evaluating performance
2.4 Organizational goals and feedback Processes
2.5 Methods of Appraisal
2.6 Elements of a successful Appraisal System
and Appraisal Performance goal
2.7 Nature and causes of ethnicity in Nig. Organizations
2.8 Human explanation of ethnicity
2.9 Ethnicity in Nigeria, cultural or political issue.
2.10 Perspectives on Ethnicity and realities of
ethnicity in Nigerian work place.
3.1 Research design
3.2 Sampling procedure
3.3 Questionnaire Design
3.4 Data collection
3.5 Data Analysis Technique
3.6 Performance and Operational measures of variable.
Presentation Analysis of Data
4.1 Job and Environmental conditions
4.2 Employee participation in performance
Appraisal and motivation
4.3 Motivation of subordinate
4.4 Appraisal Technique method
4.5 Disciplinary actions
4.6 Performance Appraisal Results
4.7 Test of Research Hypothesis
Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations
5.4 Further Researches on performance appraisal
Effective appraisal is the heart of successful management. The ability to use appraisal to develop and motivate employees is a core management skill. The concept of ethnicity performance has become companies and often, transaction corporations.
It is a means of formally assessing the activities over a given period of individuals with organization who are charged with specific sub-objective which are derived from the organizations overall objective so as ascertain the degree of achievement of these sub-objectives with the larger framework of the organizational object.
Without appraising performance, there can hardly be any feedback on how the outcome of unit activities compare with the objectives, on other hand how the sum of outcomes of unit activities compare with over all objectives of the organization, on the other. These frequently voiced organizational goal underscore the reason appraising performance should be conceived. This is because: -
1. It is useful for evaluating the success of training and development initiatives on opinion but results.
2. Feedback informed the employees how the organization viewed their performance.
3. It generates evidence to evaluate the effectiveness of selection and placement
4. It also generates information upon which the organization could consider its strate and budget.
5. It could produce evidence and opportunity of career progression.
6. It could evaluate the relative individual contributions in achieving the goals thereby enhancing more training.
Appraisal performance according to Wayne and Elias is systematic description of the job relevant strengths and weaknesses of employees, while Beach in his opinion said that appraisal performance as the systematic evaluation of the individual with respect to his performance on the job and his potential for development.
Every organization whether prfit oriented or not it influenced by some socio-cultural factors in its geographic location which has predominantly spread all over the world.
The very prominent and unique among these factors is ethnicity; normally refereed as a way of life of a people. Others are tribalism and religion.
Ethnicity before now has hardly been studied as one factor that could affect the appraisal performance of an organization rather, it has been studied by scholars as a political factor. The belief is that, ethnicity does exist in both private and public sector of an economy. It could noticed when cases like god-father, tribalism, favouritism etc. come into play. This also underscore the belief that, it could bring about a better harmony and understanding and less conflict, in the organization as such, superiors believing that subordinates of some ethnic origins need regular and effective upward appraisal whether well performed or not there by retrogressing the degree of achieving organization goals.
Since the performance efficiency are sacrificed an the alter of ethnic chauvinism, in some organization, it is therefore relevant to harness the factors behind it and proper solutions before any organization becomes firmly stuck in the molten lead of retrogression.
1.2 CONTEXT OF THE PROBLEM
Some organizations today can not determine whether ethnicity exists perhaps have an adverse effect on employees appraisal performance. This has resulted to the overall inefficiency of achieving organizational goals and objectives there by creating a retrogressive in the organization’s productivity. This has lead to the examination of the appraises, Job description to ascertain whether roles or responsibilities have changed since the last appraisal.
Ethnicity and appraisal performance is unique subjects in the study of management. Appraisal is a continuous responsibility of management and it is a necessity in organization by trying to get the best out of the individuals working for it.
Organization lack standard measures in evaluating the performance of employees. An appraisal gives the employees a feedback as to know how management perceives his contribution to the organization. For instance, if an employee perceives that he is poorly evaluated due to difference in ethnic group. It could effect his morale, increase his absenteeism rate and tardiness which could reduce his performance and affect productivity.
Moreso, there has been a reluctance on the part of management to effectively appraise their employees performance. It is the responsibility of managers to assess how well the employees allocated to jobs are performing to identify and correct their potentials for achievement to bigger and better jobs within the organization.
Appraisal performance are not fun but a lot of time, they are agonizing because managers do really dumb things, ending up destroying a process that is importance to everyone. This explains some stupid things managers do to screw up appraisal performance according to Rober Bacal 91999).
a. Spending more time on appraisal performance than performance planning or ongoing performance communication
b. Comparing employees with one another
c. forgetting that appraisal is about improvement not blame.
d. Stopping appraisal performance when a person’s salary is no longer tied to the appraisals
e. Believing that they are in position to accurately assess staff.
f. Canceling or postponing appraisal meetings.
Inspite of the importance of appraisal performance, the way it is designed and implemented in many organizations especially in oil companies may dampen it effectiveness both as an evaluative and developmental tool. A system is needed in analyzing and evaluating the impact of ethnicity on the strengths and weaknesses of the individuals and improve on their productivity.
Furthermore, ethnicity an appraisal performance and the way it affects organizational productivity can bring about decrease in productivity organizational goals and objectives if not eradicated.
1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
It is the aim of this study to determine if there will be an overwhelming impact ethnicity has on employees, appraisal performance and organizational goal and objectives. It is most likely that many managerial solutions has detracted less attention or has unsuccessfully accepted problems than has the development and implementation of a valid method of appraising performance.
The overall aim of appraisal performance is to improve the efficiency of an organization trying to get the best out of the individuals working for it . it the responsibilities of manager to assess how well the employees allocated to Jobs are performing, to identify and correct their shortcomings and to report on their potential for achievement to bigger and better jobs within the organization.
The presence of ethnicity in any organization can hardly be overstated. Despite its debilitating consequences on organizational development it was seen as a misdemeanour and as such, no one has been punished on the account of it. Hence it is remarkably resilient and morality neutral.
It is therefore the intention of the researcher to find out the impact of ethnicity on appraisal performance in organizations because, effective appraisal enable organizations reward achievements of employees and encourage continuos improvement as such, they will build in their strengths, achieve their full potentials and make maximum and resultful contributions to their organizations.
1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
This research project is aimed at doing an analytical study on the effect of ethnicity has on employee’s appraisal of an organization. The purpose is to find out the relationship that exists between the employees’ appraisal performance of the same ethnic group and the different ethnic group. It is also poised to find out the factors responsible for the existence ethnicity in organizations and the employee’s appraisal approach utilized.
Summarily the study is intended to provide lasting solution to the problem of ethnic chauvinism and its effect on employees, appraisal performance and highlights on the importance of effective and continuous performance and feedback process to employees and organizational development, as well as to suggest a unified approach to fulfilling an organization change and development ambition.
1.5 TEST OF HYPOTHESES
For this study to have a clear focus, the following hypotheses are necessary:-
1. There is a positive relationship between ethnicity and appraisal performance techniques.
2. There is a positive relationship between ethnic favouritism and appraisal performance result.
3. There is a positive relationship between ethnicity and disciplinary actions.
4. Job conditions and environmental factors are satisfactory to subordinates of the same ethnic group then of different ethnic group.
5. There is a positive relationship between motivation and performance in employees of same ethnic group than of different ethnic group.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following questions are necessary in this study.
1. That Job conditions and environmental factors affect subordinates performance which in turn affect their productivity in employees of same ethnic group than of different ethnic group.
2. That lack of motivation of subordinates can make them not tom be happy with their work which, in turn affect their productivity in employees of same ethnic group than of different ethnic group.
3. That appraisal techniques/methods use for employees of same ethnic group as different from that of different ethnic group.
4. Those disciplinary actions in the organization are less vigorously applied as employees of the same ethnic group than of different ethnic group.
5. That appraisal result favours employees of same ethnic group than of different ethnic group.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
This refers to assessing and evaluating the out comes that occurs as a result of an employee’s behaviour on the job, which brings about the attainment of organizational goal.
PRODUCTIVITY: - Refers to the performance or contribution of one person over a specified period of time. This productivity is the output resulting from a given resources input at a given time. The relationship of input to output is Value of output
Cost of input > 1
MOTIVATION: Refers to states within an individual that drives behaviour towards goals. It is that energizing force that induces or compels and maintains behaviour.
PERFORMANCE STANDARDS: This is a specification of the quantity, time or quality of work, which should be attained by the holder of a certain job. It is a yardstick or criteria for measuring or comparing an individual’s actual performance.
FEEDBACK: Is letting people know the results brought about by their efforts.
ABILITY: Refers to knowledge and skill exhibited by an individual in carrying out his duties.
ETHNICITY:- Is said to be an emotion attaching to the cultural origins and affinities of people.
ORGANIZATION: This is an organized group of people who came together to accomplish an objective.
ETHNIC: Is a nation or group of people having a common language and cultural value.
EMPLOYEE: This is a staff of an organization employed to work effective and productive.
1.8 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Appraisal which has been described as another term of evaluation is a continuous process in the majority of organizations in the sense that, it is occurring most of the time and has come to be regarded by managers as being versatile, they serves many purposes.
This have been done on the impact of performance evaluations, motivation, content issue and employee development, it is apparent that not much has been done to find out the effects of employee appraisal alone to consider the presences of ethnicity as such it has been viewed and conducted solely in terms of its evaluative aspect thereby overlooking it use for facilitating growth and development in employees through counseling and feedback of appraisal information.
This study will prove it the employees appraisal performance of an organization can be influenced by ethnicity, which will as well proffer solution and ideas to implement to avoid the creation of an environment for ethnic tendencies, thereby giving an insight on the possible solutions to improving the appraisal system which will form a basis for academicians or consultants in this field, in making conclusions to probably state if ethnicity (if present) actually have some adverse effects on the employees appraisal performance and the overall productivity.
Therefore, this study will bring definiteness in this aspect o f knowledge and look at the various techniques/methods use in appraising employees and its relationship with ethnicity and the level of productivity to achieving organizational goals and objectives.
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