BUDGETING AS AN EFFCETIVE TOOLS IN CONTROLLING GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE
(A CASE STUDY OF SOME GOVERNMENT PARASTATALS).
This research project was initiated to highlight how budgeting can be fully used in the control of government expenditure, using some government parastatals as a case study. As we know budgeting is a system that sees the plans of government in terms of revenue and expenditure in motion. Hence budget is a plan, a system that sees the plans of government, in order words budget in the creation often world which he imbibed on what we call the four dimension of creation. It then implies that budgeting is a sinequanon to everybody, be it organization, society etc.
However, this system is not efficient by applied and its benefit utilized.
The appraisal of budgeting as a tool for the control of government expenditure using some government parastatals was carried out. This study was done to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of budget preparation, implementation and monitoring for achievement of results. In one findings, I found out that in any organization where budgets are fully accepted, the achievement of policy objectives is highly obtainable. this rarely the case study in some government parastatals because there is a very big gap between the top executive and subordinates who are usually the machinery for effective implementation of the budget. this gives room for non acceptability of the budget and their set objectives. If everybody in the government parastatals understand the importance of budget and its implementation, the interest of all be represented, on basis of the findings so recommendations were made in order to improve of budget system as a vital tool for the control of government expenditure.In the course of the study some hypothesis were formulated. Data were collected based on questionnaire surveys and oral interviews. The hypothesis were stated to reflect the problem under study. The collected data and stated hypothesis were later analyzed and tested using two universally accepted statistical tools, simple arithmetic percentage and the chi-square (X2) test.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of Problem
1.3 Objective of Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.6 Scope of the Study
1.7 Significance of the Study
1.8 Limitation of the Study
2.0 Review of Related Literature
2.1 Definition and the Subject matter of budgeting
2.2 Types of Budgeting
2.3 Objective of Budgeting
2.4 Step and procedures in budget preparation
2.5 Budget Implementation
2.6 Elements of Successful budgeting
2.7 Characteristic of a good budgeting system
2.8 Organization of the finance department of Ministry of
Finance Enugu North Council
2.9 Budgeting in some government parastatals
2.10 Budgeting as a source of Revenue
2.11 Budgeting as a tool of control
3.0 Research design and method
3.2 Area of Study
3.3 Population of Study
3.4 Sources of Data
3.5 Sample and Sampling Techniques
3.6 Validity Reliability of Research Instruments
3.7 Method of data collection
4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data
4.1 Presentation and Analysis of Result
4.2 Test of Hypothesis
5.0 Summary of Finding, Conclusion and Recommendation
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The control of budgeting is as old as man. In history, we learnt that the early man had to determine whatever he needed in advance before it eventually materialized.
This is very obvious in present day in the lives of individuals a state or Nation. For one to succeed in this world, you have to plan ahead and map out how to use one’s limited resources, to achieve positive result. As a Nation plans ahead in terms of revenue and expenditure with a specific period of time so also an individual Federal, State and Local Government conceptualizes anticipated revenue and disbursement within a specific period of time. This is called budgets.
Therefore, budget can be defined as a short term of financial plan which guide managers in achieving the objectives of a firm or as a comprehensive and co-ordinate plan, expressed in financial terms, for the operations and resources of an enterprise for some specific period in future. Alternatively, a budget is a formal expression of managerial plans in quantitative and financial terms encompassing different phase of business operations and aimed at assisting management in attaining the organizational objectives. While controlling according to the Oxford Advance Learners dictionary 6th Edition States it as an act or the power to make decision about how a country, an area an organization is run.
Then, budgetary control is the use of budget for assigning responsibilities, planning and controlling performance and guiding managerial and other activities of the firm towards the achievement of the organizational objectives. Budgetary control being a management technique is used for the purpose of controlling of income and expenditure. Control is achieved by preparing budgets relating to the various activities of the business and these provide a basis for comparison with actual performance. It identifies source of income and assist in planning expenditure individuals, families’ business government and various organizations all use budgets.
A government budget may involve billions of naira while that of individuals involves only a few Naira, but all budgets resemble one another in certain way. Budget help individuals or group achieve certain goals by making them use whatever resources available wisely. Every establishment, be it public or private find it necessary to prepare budget and institute budgeting control for the purpose of translating activities as well as instituting financial control in order to achieve the best possible results.
This budgeting is made both in the private and public sector and also at the Federal, State or Local Government levels. It can be therefore seen that budgets and budgetary control, if effectively planned and implemented can be used as an effective the objective of this study, the impact of budgeting on the expenditure of government council of Enugu state will be critically evaluated.
1.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The problems facing the use of budgeting as an effective tool in the control of Government expenditure, is the problem of allocating their limited resources of being able to allocate available resources efficiently and this has given rise to several questions. Some of their problematic issues are:
1. How much of the needed resource have we?
2. How do we allocate the availability, quantity in order to achieve the best possible results?
3. How can people be made to understand that budget is not a more spending authorization but an overall plan for the government activities?
4. How can budget strictly adhere to without over spending?
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The appraisal of budgeting as a tool for the controlling, Government expenditure using some Government parastatals. This study is done to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of budget preparation, implementation and monitoring for achievement of result the major objective of budgeting are as follows:
1. To examine how budgeting can be used to control expenditure on the other hands, and assist revenue generation.
2. To asses what extent budget are implemented to achieve high standard of living.
3. To evaluate the objective and uses of government objectives.
4. To examine what is meant by budgeting in some government parastatals.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS:-
The following research questions will guide the researcher in this study.
1. Why is budget necessary for effective operations.
2. Is budget fully implemented for achievement of result.
3. What are the uses of budgeting control
4. What are the reasons for occurrences of variances and can it be controlled.
The following hypotheses were formulated by researcher for the purpose of the study.
1. Proper budgeting and controlling has not been carried out very effectively.
2. Practical suggestion on how to improve the qualitative characteristics of the use of budgeting.
3. Budget committee that has set up in implementing budgeting has not been able to achieve their goals.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
It will be so broad to this study either one the federal or state government level and also to make study work understanding, but it will only emphasized the case study of some government parastatals.
1.6 SIGNIFCANCE OF THE STUDY
A saying goes “If a man does not take thought of what is very distant, before long he will find sorrow at hand”.
Planning is essentially a process of preparing for the commitment government resources in the most economical fashion. It enables an organization to identify its strengths and weakness, threats and opportunity before drawing plans, this makes them to be effectively and efficiently plan for the economic uses of their resources. The three ties of government are not left out in the process of budgeting. A well prepared budget will enable government its goal and objectives while shabby prepared budgets are always disastrous hence, it becomes crucially important to know the impact of effective budgeting in the control of government expenditure.
Then the significance of this study can be categories into two;
1. ACADEMIC SIGNIFICANCE
The academic significance of this work is that it will be a reference point to future researchers who will carry out their research work on the use of budgeting as an effective tool in the control of government expenditure.
2. PRACTICAL SIGNIFICNACE:
This research work will be of great help to the budget committees, directors, sole proprietors’ organizations and government parastatals etc. in proper utilization of revenue and expenditure. In this study the weakness will be find out and possible remedies suggested when all the above objectives have been meet, alternative better budget technique will be adopted by government and by other organization that may be opportune to come across the study.
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