RESEARCH AS AN INSTRUMET OF ORGANISTION EFFECTIVE
(A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIAN BOTTLING COMPANY PLC ENUGU)
As the topic states, that is “the need for efficient inventory management in a manufacturing company.
One major component of this cost in many manufacturing organization that desires the att4ention of management in the investment in inventories” otherwise known as stock one will then say that really manufacturing companies face inventorying management problems of what the researcher tried to analyze and burring possible solution to that effect the problems associated with inventory management are unavailability of raw materials, the determinations of optimum level of stock as well as the discrepancy between policy and practice in stock management.
In carrying out the research work, some research work, some research questions were asked such as:
a. Does the company make policy decision about stock management?
b. Does inventory planning involve the determination of such factors as market demand and plant capacity.
c. What benefit are derived from maintaining inventory at their optimal level?
The simple random sampling techniques was used and their method of data collection used were oral interview, company journals, textbooks and questionnaires which were mostly structured the department act as source of data for planning and controlling of stocks.
Moreover, from the analysis of data gathered, it was revealed that the company makes decision about stock management and also that stock can be allowed to leave the stores without requisition being made for it in order to meet up with emergency.
Based o the above analysis carried out, it was also fathered that inadequate information flow, rapid inflationary pressure as well as ill organized storage system are factors that militating against efficient inventory management in the company.
Economic order quality, stocks budget minimum – maximum stock levels are used as means of controlling stock.
The research writer recommends that the company should set up stock management committee I ensure that there is adequate information flow about inventory management and organize perfect storage system for the stocks.
In order to guide against inflation market price of valuing inventory is recommended there should be optimum stock level to avoid under or over stocking
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 RESEARCH AS AN INSTRUMENT OF AN ORGANISATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS
2.2 THE ORIGIN OF THE SUBJECT
2.3 DIVISION OF RESEARCH SYSTME
2.4 RESEARCH CONTROL WITHIN AND OUTSIDE THE ORGANISATION
2.5 INFORMATION COLLECITON AS A BASIS IN RESEARCH
2.6 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
3.0 DATA PRESENTATION AND DATA ANALYSIS
3.1 RESEARCH QUESTION
3.2 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
There has been many definitions of the term “Research”, but the one the researcher is gang to use in this work states that “Researcher is the systematic and scientific method of finding solutions to a problem”. From the definition above, we take the problem to mean, a situation where there is an established difficulty without any immediate remedy. It also means some mal functioning of a part of a system. A problem can also mean anything that impedes the smooth running of a system or anything of interest to carryout investigation on. It can be positive or negative. A problem is said to be positive when the course of interest understudy is advantageous to the company. Example, why people prefer coca-cola to other products. It is also negative when the problem is tarnishing or deteriorating the smooth running of he organization, example, why there is decrease in the sales of “sprite”.
Many organizations after formation or birth go off or folds or sometimes are unable to grow and develop financially, economically and otherwise.
These problems are as a result of many causes in which lack of or ignorance of research work is one of them. On the other hand, when well viewed it would be noticed that research work is of great benefit because it exposes the organization missing links.
Research is also most effective when carried accordingly, that is, it must be purely systematic and scientific in nature.
Research as a discipline also helps to make new discovers because the researcher must have gone through all necessary requirements to note what to do and what ought not to be done.
Infect, management and research should be referred to as the body and soul of organization because without it (Research). The tendency of the growth of any organization will be foolaw. Research supplies management with data, which reduces the risks in decision making, thereby enhancing the change of success.
This project is designed to meet the needs of such vital benefits and asphodel’s of research using Nigerian bottling company plc. Enugu as a case of study.
The nature of this work requires theoretical approach and a analysis which will cover such dimension as:
1. The influence of information on research in organization.
2. Research and management as an inseparable body.
3. Lack of understanding that creates problems between management and researchers.
a. Information is said to be the life –wire of every business. It also has a vital role to play in organization research work. It is also said that “ to mange information is to mange business well” (Manian Harper).
Some internal information of the organization are; answers from questionnaire within the organization, oral interview of workers, past records etc. External information may include; field survey, population survey, market survey competitors or other organization records.
b. Research and management as an inseparable body, in any organization, the main duty of management is decision making and any decision made is based 80% on the research findings what to produces and ho to produce. Even the distribution aspect of it,will be determined by the research work.
c. Lack of understanding creating some problems between management and researchers.
Management lays the following blames on researcher:
1. That research is not problem oriented. It tends to provide plethora of facts but, not actionable projects.
ii. Those researchers die too involved with techniques and they appear to be reluctant to get involved in management problems.
iii. Research has shown vague, and questionable validity.
iv. Research cannot communicate, they do not understand and they do not talk the language of management.
Researchers also have these complaints about management:
i. Management does not include research in decision-making. Management tends to also only for specific information about parts of problems.
ii. Management pays more than … services to research and does not really understand or appreciate its value.
iii. Management does not allow enough time for research. They draw preliminary conclusion based on early or incomplete results.
iv. Management relies more on intoning and judgment than on research. Research is used as a crutch, not as a tool.
These misunderstandings are features of management and research. In order to accomplish this work, the Nigeria bottling company plc. Is the organization that would be used as case study because it uses research questions in its information on and research development?
The company holds a franchise of coca-cola company of the United States of America. The company is bother of mineral water, soft drinks such as coke, fanta, orange, tonic, ginger, and Chapman, sprite, club soda and other latest fanta lemon. Their branches are scattered all over the world. Coca –cola is one of the detest mineral soft drinks manufacture in the world.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
Behind any viable organization, there must be research section that checks an will happen, what happened and how it happened. what happened and how it happened.
There are some problems which hinders the effectiveness of proper research work, they are: poor findings, poor organizing of research section according to functions, lack of professional in research work, poor interpretation of research data and poor procedure in data gathering etc. the problems this research is going into are:
1. Poor procedure in data gathering
2. Lack of professional (s) in research work.
1. POOR PROCEDURE IN DATA GATHERING RESEARCH
Go far for information considering some factors which includes:
i. Cost of the data needed
ii. How reliable is the sample or population (false information)
iii. Time involvement as for the collection of the data needed.
iv. The availability the data
v. The method used in collection the data.
LACK OF PROFESSIONAL (S) IN RESEARCH WORK:
Firms fail to use professional and specialists in research work due to
i. The cost of the researcher.
ii. The nature of the problems to research on
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
By the completion of this study, it will be aimed at accomplishing the following objectives;
i. To notify how important it is to use research in the growth and development of an organization.
ii. To identify the reasons why research fails in some organization
iii. To know how to reduce these problems facing the efficiency in research works.
iv. To know how best to gather the needed data for research.
1.4 SIGIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research work has been undertaken in such a way that, students, other researchers, business organization and interested members f the following:
i. The importance of conducting research business organization.
ii. The factors responsible for poor research works and why same firms retain from it.
iii. The best way and time to conduct research as effectively as possible
iv. The decision making of any organization depends on the findings of its research works. The Nigerian bottling company PLC. Enugu is good case study where all the above-mentioned reasons will be satisfied.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESITONS
i. Has research any important role to play in the efficiency and development of the organization.
ii. What are these factors that effect the smooth running or hinder the effectiveness of research.
iii. Should research works base only with the organization or across the organization?
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this research study will be vase on the data collected from the information research department of the Nigeria Bottling company Plc Enugu. But for the purpose of clarify; other information that will be necessary for the completion of the project may be collected from any relevant affiliated literature.
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For more project materials
Log on to www.grossarchive.com
Luther path (1989) “Organizational Research management” New York, Bill water publishers.
Arrow K.J. (1980) “Research in management control” A critical synthesis, London, Evans (II)
Miner, J.B. and miner M.G. (1973) personal and industrial relations A managerial approach 1st Edition New York, Mac Mullion
Cole G.A. (1980) Management theory and practice England, Hants O.P. Published.
Ubeeu A.K. Personal management in Nigeria, Benin City Ethiopia Publishing Corporation.
For management to achieve its purpose research is very indispensable organizational problems may be that of fall in sales consumes diversion to the competing products, low out put in work and service.
According to Rich (1993) the research effort is vital for long run survival of the firm, that the traditional role of research and development effort is directed towards cutting production costs, improving productivity and responding to study health, and environmental problems.
The orientation way form “blue sky” research to “applied “ research request personnel in research and development units, to be very much involved in the company research needs to be properly integrated with the reminder of the organization for effectiveness.
RESEARCH AS AN INSTRUMENT OF AN ORGANISATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS
1. Research has rendered a lot of effectiveness to Nigeria Bottling Company in many ways. As we know that the world is dynamic, an effective organization has to be changing towards the taste of his customers. This can be revealed through the instrument of research. At times in a business organization you will notice failure or back sliding and the has a cause for it. It is only through research you will find out the cause or problem which has to be rectified in order to achieve the objective goal.
2. Research has also created a short working hours for the worker and has increased the productivity and profitability of the organization. This is done through the use of computer. The work or duty that would have taken a very long time to accomplish can only last a twinkle of a hour with large productivity because of the use of computer. Due to division of labour workers will be working according to the specialization, but now with the use of computer, it can do the work itself alone. Computer, which will save the organization a lot of money that would have been paid as salaries to workers and this will now increase heir profit.
3. Research creates development ad growth research has created the conversion of labour from manual labour to machinery’s. It is through research that many organizations have diverted to the use of machines.
In Nigeria Bottling Company, a lot of manual work has converted to machines because it is more hygienic, saves time and less cost of production with high productivity, which is major target of every organization.
4. Research has helped Nigeria Bottling company especially in a way of finding the type of marketing strategies that are also their customers because they have many competitors that are also situated in the same environment with them. It is obvious there much difference between coca-cola and its competitors like their much difference between coca-cola and its competitors like 7up crush, limca etc. this is because of standard materials/chemicals they are using which the researcher believes if the other competitors made a proper research they will find out the secret.
5. It is through research that you will find out what exactly is your customer need and want. Without the work of research you will be producing other goods that are not your customers need while they will still look for the exact goods they need for their satisfaction. This is why Nigeria Bottling Company does to waste time and spend their last card to make some they have competent and skilled workers.
There are major department they do not tamper with like the production and marketing departments. This is because when the products are in standard content ad there is no sales they have gone. This marketing department on the standard that is required by the customers, and know their marketing strategy they will use in order to convince their customers for every organization try to have highest return in the market. For it is said that production has not come to an end until it reaches the consumers like wise marketing has not come to an until it satisfies customers need and wand. In short research is indispensable on matte the types of organization you are operating o because they world is not static and we have to dance according to its tone.
2.2 THE ORIGIN OF THE SUBJECT AREA
There has been many distinction of the term” Research such as “research is the systematic and scientific method of finding out solution to a problem” A problem can be negative or positive. A problem is said to negative when the problem smooth reaming of the organization while positive problem is when the course of interest under study is advantageous to the company.
Research is also most effective when carried our accordingly, that is it must be purely systematic and scientific in nature. This project is designed to meet the need of such vital benefits and leap holes of research using Nigeria Bottling company plc as a case study in fact, management and research should be referred to as the body and soul of organization because without it (research) the tendency of the growth of any organization will be too how.
2.3 DIVISION OF RESEARCH SYSTEM
The location of the research functions in the organization and the extent to which it is stated very from to firm. Some firm does most of their advertising agency special research firms, and independent consultants. Some companies have only a single research department that is responsible for all research projects conducted, where as other have decentralized the sales and distribution cost analysis are conducted by the accounting department, advertising research by the advertising department and forecasting by the staff of the chief executive the remaining areas requiring research (studies of market potential market share, market characteristics sales call effectiveness sales quotes and distribution facilities, pries police and their effects on sales purchasing development and so on are the responsibility of the research department.
1. MARKETING RESEARCH : According to ketks, marketing research is the systematic design collection analysis and reporting of data findings relevant to specific marketing situation facing the company. Marketing research also constitutes.
Market research helps members of an organization to understand the operation of their market. In doing so it enable them to answer question such as:
Who makes up the target audience? What goods and services will the require?
When will they need them?
Where will they sell best?
What trends are likely to take place in the future?
The answers to these questions will helps an organization to plan ahead rather than to rely upon guess works. (Business Dave and Dransfield).
2. PRODUCT RESEARCH: the tasks of production research and development is to combines is to combines with marketing activities to carter for the changing preferences of consumers and come up with the goods and service that will meet the need of tomorrow’s customer. Product researches are development therefore, goes hand in hand with market research and considerable liaison is required between these tow areas (Dave and Grandfield: Business)
3. PURCHASING RESEARCH:- This is a systematic ad objective search for an analysis of information to guide mangers, purchasing executive officers and others that have direct dealing with the buy firms of the various units in planning of s success purchasing activities or when taking decision on what to purchase them, when to purchase them and from where to purchase them.
4. MANAGEMENT RESEARCH : Management also has a well situated researches designed to investigate generally on the matter, concerning the management in decision making. In fact, this section of research take cares of all other researches in the organization and their reports. It mainly constitutes the member of the organization.
2.4 THE ORGANIZATION
In organization, the research department and function are merged together with the marketing department while some others have a single research department. Research functions are divided into two internal researchers and external researchers. The internal researchers deal with the information within the organization whereas the external researchers work with information they gather form the organizations external environment. They are also responsible for research, in case they organization wants to go international. These two groups after gathering all their needed information come together in order to make up a meaning furl information of their research before drawing conclusion the research functions are indirectly related to other department such as production, personnel, technical accounting finance and purchasing. It is the duty f the research to make investigation as related to the organizations activities before decision-making. Research department work funding or result is being reported to one supervision who then segregate them as needed and as when where they are needed. A number of research designs, practices are adopted by organization the practices are intended to provide a maximally productive internal organization for research ad development and to assure that research is properly integrate with the remainder of the organization the organization design of research unit stresses the development of explicit objective are made individuals have considerable freedom to select how they will achieve these objective. The job design provides consider depth and scope for scientists to purse objectives, using the research and technical method they desire, a second organizational design feature is open communication channels, both upward and downward. Mangers and sub-ordinates alike discuss issue and problem prior to selecting a solution, which the research will use in carrying out their activities .
2.5 INFORMATION COLLECTION AS A BASIS IN RESEARCH
An organization requires information. The gathering of such information helps it to place it’s activities and reduce uncertainty management needs information on which strategic plans can be formulated.
Top management deals with the activities that has a time dimension of one to five or more years, not that they ignore short term problem, rather the executive committee focuses on the future the plans promulgates the major business, market and product strategies of the organization for the next five year or longer, indicating the research in the form of facilities, people technology and money necessary to accomplish the strategies. Middle management needs to draw form this information to develop subordinate plan necessary for implementing an organization strategy – fast line management must have access to information that will provide operational guidance in accomplishing day – to-day task requirement. Information is thus a critical resource for making decision and exercising control in any organization. Management information systems (MIS) has been designed in the organization to collect combine compare, analyze and disseminate data in the form the organization may use to gather data in a central local where it can be meaningful processed to generate information needed for decision making . it provides the organization with a structured mean for presenting past, current and projected information gathered form various sources management information system (MIS) provides cuts information a continuous basis sources of information’s are: INTRNAL INFORMATION: They include answers from questionnaire within they organization oral interview of works/employees past records etc.
EXTERNAL INFORMATION: They include field survey report, competitor or other organization reward etc. developing a central data bank and an information center is not does not guarantee that information with be used wisely a frequent problem in the organization is that a great deal of information is generated, large quantities of information so based on the assumption that a direct relationship exists between the information and the quality of decision. But as we have seen, the quality roller than the quantity of information is more important for decision making to promote effective utilization of a decision super system is to see information as a basic resource of the organizational personnel and plant and equipment. This as basic resources, information
1. Is vital for the survival of the organization
2. Can only be used at a cost
3. Must be at the right place at the right time.
4. Must be used efficiently for an optimal return on it’s cost to the organization.
Each user of information should consider the cost of the information relative to it’s utility for decision making for example, the cost of completing complete information for an decision must be weighed against the expected value of a decision made will incomplete information.
Time: information needed in the organization should be recovered within the stipulated functioning time for usage precise this concerns the measurement detail used in providing the information.
Accuracy – it must be complete without error.
Quantifiable – it has to be mimetically stated
Verifiable – it must be the same when examined by other persons
Accessible – this concerns the ease and speed with which information can be obtained. It must be from bias. Appropriateness and clarity must ve considered.
2.6 RESERCH INSTRUMENT: This states that the materials or instruments used in gathering needed information for this project work while collecting information regarding to the already stated research questions oral interview were used as developed by the researchers. This was done with the aid of tape recorder, 20 questions were used and they are divided into two sub-heading. Sub A is based on production and marketing management, problems and prospects of the organization, containing is question, while sub section B is on the achievement of the organization containing question
D.M. Henold (1972) long range planning and organizational performance Academy of management Journal, March
Thil D. S and Hawking (1993) marketing Research measurement and method London Macmillan publisher.
Printer M.E. (1985) competitive Advantage creating and sustain supervisor performance, New York free press
Mansfield E. (1990) managerial economic; theory analysis of business and cases New York Norton
Hill 5 (1989) managerial Economic the analysis of business decisions London Macmillan.
Luther Path F. (1998) organizational Research management New York bill water publisher
3.O DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
In this chapter, the data are presented and also analyzed. The method data analysis employed is simple percentage method.
3.1 RESERARCH QUESTION
Has the research any important role to play in the efficiency, growth and development of the organization?.
The data for this research question are analyzed based on the response from the marketing manager and he said it is emphatically, yes this he said because it helps in creating new ideas and lines of business into the existing ones it also helps in revealing the bad works of the organization. He also said that research goes along way in exposing public mind towards the organization product and name, this is done through market research. In other word’s research helps the management in taking/ making decision concerning the organization. It helps in reducing loss and as well increasing profit/ revenue and maintaining good quality product.
3.2 RESEARCH QUESTION ll
what are the factors that effect the smooth running or hindess the effectiveness of research/
1.WADEQUACY AND PROBLEM OF COLLECTING DATA
Data to be used in carrying out research is a basic necessity in the work but are high cost which also makes research work to cost more in carrying it out
2.THE ATTITUDE OF THE RESPONDENTS most of the time while carrying research work, respondent the work tends to give wrong/ false information for reasons best known to them.
FINANCIAL INADEQUACY; the management sometimes dose not provide enough fund for them research department and this makes it difficult for them their work effectively and efficient
4. HIGH LEVEL ILLITERACY
the level of illiteracy in the country makes it a big problem for researchers to get their question answered and whereby this is the case, no information is collected, it becomes a big problem.
MANAGEMENT 2 4
RESEARCH 8 16
THER STAFF 40 80
3.1.2 RESEARCH QUESTION lll
Should research be of only scientific problem approach?
No method known to man can entire eliminate uncertainly. But, scientific
Method more than any other producers can maximize the element of uncertainty, which result from lack of information. By so doing it reduces the danger of making wrong between alternative cause of action scientific method can be adopted for main widely vary solution according to the subject matter and