PUBLIC RELATIONS AND INTERNATIONAL MARKETING;
A STUDY OF SELECTED EXPORTERS IN ENUGU – STATE
There are so many problems facing international marketing in both the industrialized and developing countries, from the recent happening, he can see that these problems have been preventing international marketing from optimizing its goals of earning sufficient foreign exchange which enhances for capital income and national reserve of the country.
It is due to the full recognition of the fact that there are problems ------- in international marketing activities in Enugu – State that the researcher undertake this work (study) which sets out t o investigate the objectives, role and application of public relations (PR) to international marketing and extent by which exporting companies which constitute a significant part of business in both industrialized and developing countries.
The research objectives of this study include:
1. To determine the level of awareness among exporters in Enugu – State of the International Public Relation (IPR) strategies and practices.
2. To determine the attitude of these exporters towards the application of IPR international marketing.
3. To determine the extent of their knowledge and application of IPR in their marketing activities.
4. Also to determine the problems by them in their application of IPR techniques and strategies in international marketing.
5. To make appropriate recommendations. To achieve these objectives, the researcher tested three (3) null hypothesis (Ho) and three (3) alternative hypothesis (Hi), also there were some constraining factors during the course of this research would prominet among them was the problem encountered during distribution and collection of questionnaires.
The method the research adopted in the finding include primary and secondary data collection system in the primary data collection, questionnaires were designed and distributed to marketing executives in five exporting companies. Some respondents were interviewed to get information not available in the questionnaires administered to them while the secondary data collection was stained through related literatures, such as books, journals, magazines etc. About 150 marketing executives and public relations practitioners were interviewed. This number was selected after a pilot survey of 100 marketing officers in 5 exporting companies, and the sample size which is 150 was determined by applying Frend and Williams 1970 sample size determination model which
n = 22pq top man
(l2) and test of proportion were used in testing of hypothesis.
The major findings in this study include among others that only about 305 of the exporting companies investigated upon engage in exporting, that about 85% if the company investigated uses PR in their business activities, the IPR awareness rate of the importance, strategies and techniques which is also contained in the first hypothesis which was accepted fall, below 42 again, about 43% of the companies investigated considered using PR the major market communication means of expanding htier marketing activities, 2nd hypothesis which test fell the attitudes of exporters towards IPR was rejected while the 3rd hypothesis which tested the necessity of IPR in solving international political problems, was accepted.
Thus, it is recommended that exporters in Enugu State should practice and apply the techniques and strategic in their international marketing activities, they should engage in the use of corporate relation or institutional advertising to project their various organizations image, they should recruit better qualified still whose learning and experience have bearing on PR or marketing recourse, also they should adopt well planned IPR management engage in research to enable them select the best course of action, and evaluation their activities from time to time.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.4 Formulation of Hypothesis
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Scope of the Study
1.7 Definition of terms
2.1 Overview of Public Relations
2.2 Objectives of PR Campaign
2.3 Functions of the PR Practitioner
2.4 PR and the Marketing Concept
2.5 What is International Marketing
2.6 The International Marketing Environment
2.7 Deciding on How to go International
2.1 The Role of PR in International Marketing
3.1 Research Methodology
3.2 Sources of Data Collection
3.3 Population of the Study
3.4 Sampling Sizes Determination
3.5 Sampling Technique
3.6 Research Instrument
3.7 Data Treatment and Analysis
3.8 Allocation and Administration Question
4.1 Presentation, Interpretation and Analysis of Data
4.2 Presentation and Analysis of Data
4.3 Tests of Hypothesis
4.4 Limitation of the Study
5.1 Summary of Findings, Recommendations and Conclusions
5.2 Summary of findings
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
We all believe in communication. We keep saying so. We also say that any management which endorses good communications in – house, and externally is enlightened. Why anyone should be regarded as enlightened in simply propagating and explaining their own policy or paint of view escapes the researcher. As Henry James put it “it must be paintless to work in the dark or pursuing a relentless cliché ridden train of thought, to hide your light under a bushed”.
Public relations as one of the marketing promotional tools (promotional tools is now an important part of modern business management. But for a number of reasons, its fall contribution to management is not realized this is because PR is often a suspect, and is equated in the eyes of some members of the public within attempt to deceive to ‘full the wool over our eyes’. Yet this is the very opposite of its real purpose, which is to explain that which may not be fully apparent and to remove prejudice and misunderstanding based on ignorance of the acts.
In the highly competitive world in which we live, however, it is not enough merely to be virtuous. PR takes account of this need to focus public attention all the favourable aspects of a companies activities. By so doing it endear ours of create a good climate aims.
The task a PR therefore, is to ensure that the organisation is seen to have an effective and valuable influence upon the well – being of the trade or industry in which it operates.
A good public image is not something that occurs accidentally. It requires conscious --------- and that effort seed to be channeled to be effective. Good PR is synonymous with good communication. This requires a knowledge communication media, especially the press, radio and televisions.
This study attempts looking into the problems that hinder the utilization of PR at the international marketing level by focusing on exports in Enugu State. It is done in the light of the fact that the face of the marketing executive.
For the modern business organization, public relations role is often vital. This is because it is as much as fast of management as human resource management or financial management. It should be noted that for an organization to attain its main objectives well – managed public relations activities is required.
We can probably all think a organizations which management PR well. It is obvious that they are the organization we trust are familiar with, with which we feel comfortable and would want to do business with. For a marketing executive, the interesting question is, how do these organization win respect and convince or persuade people they are organization to support? Mr. E.O. Adirika will simply tell you that “show me who you are”. By this answer we can find out that people will go back to organisations which have made them selves and their products and services reliable. But there is more to it then performance. The must worthy company may find it self without support at time or crises, because it has filled to build and sustain important relationship for occasions when they are needed. Attempts also, will be made to exposure the ways to which PR is used to establish and maintain relationship in international business. “Relationships do not necessarily develop along satisfactory lines, rather their development has to be managers to support the interest, objectives, aspirations products, and services of the organization”. In recent years, exporters companies in Enugu State are increasingly doing business with overseas partners and associates in their own capacity. They have thus become strong factors in the projection of the national image abroad. The implication is that they are compelled to deal with people of different nationalities, languages, customs, senses of value, social and economic views. The questions that may arise from this is how do they win the support of all these people (public)?
PR as a means of marketing communication parallels all aspects of our socio – economic life. The meaning is conceived by various organisations in different ways.
Some organisations conceived the meaning from functional points of view as “image mater,” or ‘hidden persuader’, and so on. However, in this particular context the purpose of all that is labeled PR is to influence the relevant public opinion or attitude at the international marketing level in such a positive direction as to ensure good will and mutual understanding in order to achieve the marketing concept objectives.
Finally, the approach to public relations at adopted in this study is intended to be practical and to provide exporter in Enugu State with guidance towards marketing proper decisions regarding effective management of international marking activities.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
There are so many problems facing international marketing all over the world in general and Enugu State in particular, from the recent happenings, we find out that these problems have been preventing international marketing form optimizing its goal of earning sufficient foreign exchange which enhances the per capital income and national reserve of the country.
When we look around this world, we can see the fast changing economic, political and social climate; every country wants to succeed. In one seasonal thing or another in order to succeed. We saw the former union soviet societies republic (USSR) distegrate towards capitalist reforms; South African toward transitional program that will achieve good with and mutual understanding with the outside world, and a lest of others. “No matter how large or small, however, every nation in the world including our own (Nigeria) must take very much into account what” foreigner are doing and, if it wishes to accomplish more than it can be its own limited resources if must gain their co-operation”. So, is need to gel other nations to know more about us, which we are doing and what we have to offer.
“No country could keep many of its own people alive with the help of foreigner’s”. in the face of the global economy today it is on record that Nigeria is rated to be t he thirteenth (13th) poorest country in the world the great “Grant” of Africa.
Again, we have the current ‘419’ syndrome, which is making us look dreadful to our foreign visitors and prospective business associates. The political in satiability in the country does not help matters. According to reports few has griped some overseas suppliers that these political crisis can had to civil unrest.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objectives of this study are as follows:
a) To determine the level of awareness among exporters in Enugu State of the International PR strategies and practices.
b) To determine the extent of their knowledge and application of international PR in their marketing activities.
c) To determine the attitude of these exporters towards t he application of international. PR in international marketing.
d) Also determine the problems encountered by them in the application of international PR techniques and strategies in International marketing.
e) To determine or measure the level of their knowledge of international political issues and problems.
f) To determine their knowledge and attitude to how international PR (IPR) can help then overcome these international political problems in their business. To appropriate recommendations.
1.4 FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS
Hi: Exporters in Enugu State are not adequately -------- of international PR (IPR) strategies or techniques and its importance to international market.
Ho: 1 Exporters in Enugu State are not adequately aware of international PR (IPR) strategies or techniques and its importance to international market.
Ho: 2 Exporters does not have negative attitude towards the application of international PR techniques and strategies.
Hi: 2 Exporters does not have negative attitude towards the application of international public relation techniques and strategies
Ho: 3 Application of international public relation (PR) strategies and techniques will help exporters to over come international political problems in their business.
H1: 3 Application of international public relation (IPR) strategies ands techniques will not help exporters to overcome international political problems in their business.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The age old marketing system. As noted production concept that consumes will favour those products that are ideally available and low to has gone. Such system these days will be suicidal.
A country or state or organization with best available technology in the world; with stable economy political and social climate, still needs the good will and mutural understnading of others to survive. The adage “No man is an Island holds here. No country or organizaiton can be self sufficient in every thing, even when such country or organization is sound ecoomically at still needs people to talk good of her, to relate favourbaly wither and son on. The Enugu State business image today has been battered and need great face – lift. This can down led through a management functions of a continuing and planned character up – lifement through public and private organizations, individuals and institutions when will seek to win and retain the understanding, sympathy, empathy and support of those with whom we are and may be concerned with now and in the future.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study was carried out in Enugu State. The study was limited to Exporters, whom the researcher presume have more international dealings and connection.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
1. Exporters: Those who engages in sales of a country’s goods and services overseas.
2. International Marketing: The management process of identifying anticipating and satisfying customers needs and wants across national boundaries.
3. International Public Relation: This means international public relation and is used when dealing with other national or “across the border public relations”.
4. Public Relations: This is short form of writing public relations and is widely used by most writers or authors.
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