AN APPRAISAL OF THE APPLICATION OF MARKETING STRATEGY BY STATE ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT AND DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY (SEEDS) IN REDUCING POVERTY AND UNEMPLOYMENT IN ENUGU STATE

(Marketing)

AN APPRAISAL OF THE APPLICATION OF MARKETING STRATEGY BY STATE ECONOMIC

EMPOWERMENT AND DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY (SEEDS) IN REDUCING POVERTY AND UNEMPLOYMENT IN ENUGU STATE

ABSTRACT

An Appraisal of the application of marketing strategy by state Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (SEEDs) in reducing poverty and unemployment in Enugu state within the period 2004 – 2008, was carried of SEEDs programmme in Enugu state.

This research work was done to determine whether SEEDs has actually reduced the level of poverty and unemployment in Enugu State.

Against this background, the project has the objective of findings out the implementation of SEEDs programme and suggest ways to build on the success and correct the weakness of the programme in the coming years. Other objectives include.

1.                  To determine whether the SEEDs programme has reduced enlightenment programme for rural and urban development with the use of SEEDs programme

2.                  To determine the marketing strategy adopted in executing the programme.

3.                  to identify the factors militating against the application of marketing strategy

4.                  To determine the constraints to the effectiveness of SEEDs in promoting state development.

5.                  To make recommendations based on the findings

A survey research design was carried out and a sample size of 400 respondent was studied. Questionnaire was the major research instrument used in collecting data for this research work. The chi-square statistical tool was used to test the hypotheses formulated leading to the following major findings.

1.         There is significant relationship between marketing strategy adopted by SEEDs an state developments.

2.         The state government support enlightenment programme for rural and urban development with the use of SEEDs programme.

            Following our findings, we therefore conclude that the failure on the part of the government of Enugu state to improve on the implementation of SEEDs programme will not help reduce the level of poverty and unemployment in the state but will rather increase the rate tremendously on the good citizens of Enugu State.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1              Background of the study                                           

1.2              Statement of problem                                                

1.3              Objectives of the study                                              

1.4              Research questions                                                     

1.5              Research hypothesis                                       

1.6              Significance of the study                                           

1.7              Scope and limitations of the study                            

1.8              Definition of terms                                                    

References                                                                             

CHAPTER TWO- LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1              Conceptual framework                                                          

2.2              Need for marketing strategy by organizations           

2.3              The state economic empowerment and development strategy (SEEDs) and its marketing strategy                        

2.4              The concept, characteristics and challenge of poverty and unemployment in Enugu State and Nigeria in general

2.5              Distribution channel of SEEDs programme in Enugu State.

2.6              Application of marketing strategy of SEEDs.                                   

2.7              Marketing constraint of the SEEDs implement                     

References                                                                                         

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1              Research design                                                         

3.2              Area of study                                                 

3.3              Population of study                                                   

3.4              Sample and sampling techniques                               

3.5              Instrument for data collection                                               

3.6              Method of data presentation             

3.7              Method of data analysis                                            

References                                                                             

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTTION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

4.1              Data presentation                                                                               

4.2              Testing of hypotheses                                                

CHAPTER FIVE:    SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION

5.1       Summary of findings                                                 

5.2       Conclusions                                                                            

5.3       Recommendations                                                                 

            Bibliography                                                             

            Appendix                                                                              

            Questionnaire                                               

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

            Over the last four decades, the federal government has made effort to address the recurring challenges of poverty and unemployment in Nigeria. Many not these efforts have not been very successful due to none implementation and poverty are two socio-economic problems that have continued to pose challenges to government through out the globe “ these two problems have become epidemic in the Nigeria economy” Soludo (2004).

            The incidence of poverty has been high and on general increase since the 1980’s poverty rose from 28:1% to 46.3% in 1985 fell to 42.7% in 1997 but increased rapidly to 65.6% in 1996 but by 2003, it stood at 54.4% NBS, (2006).

            Other demoralizing indicator of poverty are also given life expectancy was unsatisfactory low at 54 years in 1999 while other countries like Japan life expectancy was 80.8 and  average of almost 78 years in the 48 “high human development countries: (UNDP 200: for some global poverty indices see third wall 2003: 52-62). Infant mortality at 77per 100 and  maternal mortality at 704 per 100,000 like birth are among the highest in the world other available data from national bureau of statistics show unsatisfactory pictures.

-                      Only about 10% of Nigerians has access to good drugs

-                      Physician per 100,000 people were fewer than 30

-                      Over 5 million adult Nigerians has been estimated to be living with HIV/AIDs a number that may be currently exceeded.

-                      The proportion of children fully immunized had dropped from 30% in 1990 to 17% in 1999 and almost 40% of the children in the later years had never received any vaccination.

-                      Access of potable water in 1999 was limited to about 50% of the population, less than 40% of the rural population depend on the forest for livelihood and domestic energy.

-                      Up to 1.5 hours a day on (the) average are spent by rural house hold to collect water and fire wood, with household member walking an average of one kilometer a day to collect water and firewood (central bank of Nigeria annual bulletin 2003. (WWW.cenbank.org).

Also, qualitative indicators of poverty that have suffered vulnerable group in both rural and urban communities in Nigeria between 1980-2005 is unemployment on the other hand, unemployment level has continued to rise since 1986 with a growth rate of 11.2% between 1984 and 1986 the rate was 17.3% (National Directorate of employment: 21) unemployment is one of the very many dimension of poverty and a very critical and central one. It is believed that once unemployment is poverty addressed, some of the other dimension of poverty will disappear. The twin problem of unemployment and poverty. Therefore constitute national challenges of all time (Ugbaja 2005).

            The federal and state government have continued to immitate, promote and complement effort aimed at reducing the intensity of poverty and unemployment in Nigeria.

In fact, in recent time the federal government has redoubled its effort and is stopping at nothing to take fight to the nooks and crannies of the 36 states of the federation including the federal capital territory Abuja.

In the light of the above, the federal government announced a national policy on March 2004, with an effective marketing strategy in the implementation. This programme has been known as the National/Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDs).

      In the forward to NEEDs document the former president Chief. Olusegun Obasanjo in 2003 stated the strategic points of NEEDs which are wealth creation, empowerment generation, poverty reduction and national value re-orientation within a time frame of 2003-2007. however, this work will concentrate on SEEDs which is the state counter of NEEDs.

This marketing strategy has been developed form a participatory process involving state and local government, national and state legislators, civil society organization, traditional institutions, business entities, donor agencies, ministry of finance, national planning commission etc.

      It is against this background that this study is et to examine this policy with a view to determining it’s marketing strategic implication for the state development.

1.2       STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

            The greatest concern to any growing economy is it’s ability to curtail or reduce the level of poverty and unemployment in the country.

            We have heard o several programmes from previous or past administrations being aimed at improving the lives of the people by reducing the level of poverty and unemployment parading the economy. Many of these efforts have not been very successful due to none implementation of an effective marketing strategy, lack of innovative and intellectual ideas by the initiator of the programme in the fight for corruption.

            Also, high level of illiteracy by the rural dwellers which have retarded the effectiveness of the programme in disseminating to the people at the grassroots.

            These problems observed from a bird’s eye-ball view prompted the researcher to undertake this study on the application of marketing strategy by state economic empowerment and development strategy (SEEDs) in Enugu state.

1.3       OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

            The broad objective of the study is to appraise the marketing strategies employed by SEEDs in reducing poverty and unemployment in Enugu state. Other objectives include:-

-                      To determine whether the SEEDs programme has reduced enlightenment programme for rural and urban development with the use of SEEDs programme.

-                      To determine the marketing strategy adopted in executing the programme.

-                      To identify the factors militating against the application of marketing strategy

-                      To determine the constraints to the effectiveness of SEEDs in promoting state development.

-                      To make recommendation based on the findings.

1.4       RESEARCH QUESTIONS

-           What are the types of programme executed by SEEDs?

-           What are the marketing strategy adopted by SEEDs in executing the programme?

-           To what extent has SEEDs reduced unemployment and poverty in Enugu state?

-           To what extent has the state government supported enlightenment programmes for rural and urban development with the use of SEEDs programme.?

1.5       RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

1)         (Hoi): There is no significant relationship between marketing strategy adopted by SEEDs and state development.

(Ha2): There is significant relationship between marketing strategy adopted by SEEDs and state development.

2)         (Ho2): The state government do not support enlightenment programme for rural and urban development with the use of SEEDs programme.

(Ha2): The state government support enlightenment programme for rural and urban development with the use of SEEDs programme.

1.6       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

            Nigeria needs a socio-economic renaissance that will bring this great nation out of the socio-economic trauma, and Enugu state being part of Nigeria is not left out. Unemployment, poverty, loss of faith in the economy, youth restiveness, labour agitation, over-riding gap between the rich and poor or the rising of income inequality among other negative indices, all stark us in the face.

            The significance of this study, therefore likes in its academic contribution to the actualization of poverty reduction in Enugu state.

            This work will not only attempt to provide valid statement on the role state economic empowerment and development strategy has played in reducing poverty in Enugu state but also try to make relevant recommendations that if implemented, there will be low percentage of poverty in the state.

            Kotler (1998: 231) as quoted by Onah and Thomas (2004:84) strongly believed that marketing strategy is instead of relying organization on one major differentiation of our thought, a company need to weave its own tapestry of  marketing qualities and activities.

            The organization must have a robust strategy and they do that by embarking on journey to total quality management it is strongly believed that as powerful agent of business management, self concept, sharper ideology, public opinion, the media have a role to play in the reduction of unemployment and poverty in Enugu state.

            This research is a struggle on mobilization of youths and also in addition to the sensitizing literature research on implementation of SEEDs programme.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Marketing strategy:

Conceptual definition- is a systematic process that involves the assessment of marketing opportunities and resource, the determination of marketing objectives, development of implementation and control.

            Operational definition- This shall be taken as a process of implementing effective planning of state economic empowerment and development strategy.

Unemployment

Conceptual definition- it is the fact of a number of people not having a job.

Operational definition: The word is used to indicate one of the major problem faced by indigenous of Enugu state that is to help and reduce the rate.

MATERNAL MORTALITY

Conceptual definition- This means the number of death rate in mothers in a particular situation or period of time.

Operational definition- It deals with the  high rate death occurrence in mother in the process of given birth to child.

Poverty

Conceptual definition- This is lacking basic necessary socio-economic facilities that promote and increase the life rate.

Operational definition: This is a multidimensional term but simply means a situation of lacking money, it also means social deprivation and hunger.

STATE DEVELOPMENT

-                      Conceptual definition:- This is a situation of improvement in the condition of people in a given environment.  

-                      Operational definition: Improvement in people condition of living symbolized availability of means of lively hood and basic infrastructure.

SEEDS

Conceptual Definition – This is an acronym for state economic empowerment and development strategy

Operational definition – Electronic and paper means of dissemination of information to diversified number of people in Enugu state.

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