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This project work which is all about the fungal infestation of bakery product BREAD, explain the kind or type of fungal organisms that are responsible for the  spoilage on contamination of bread. The infestation of fungal organism on bread depends on the kind and number of the agent present and upon the environment about them. this statement makes it clear that micro organism infest foods having suitable environment condition for their microbial activity. This project work is centered on knowing the fungal micro-organisms that infests bread which emails the isolation and identification of the fungal organisms, the source of coutanmination a known standardized system called hazard analysis critical control point which  ensures hygienically produced breads. The material and method email the collection of bread samples from five different shops AT Artisan market, Enugu, the method used is the isolation technoloque and the identification of filamention fungi and yeast by wet mount and fluorescence microscopy. The result obtained were gotten by counting the colonies grown on the culture medium (Nutrient agar) and the mean of duplicate  was then calculated, some fungal micro organisms seen viewed unbder the microscope are as follows;

Mucon SpP

Aspergillus     flarus

Aspergillus fumigatus

Penicillium Spp

Rhizopus Spp



Table 1            Composition of the medium

Table 2            Daily observation of bread at room temperature

TABLE 3        Fungal load of the cultured bread

Table 4            Cultural and morphological characteristics





1.1              Background information

1.2              Aims and objective of study

1.3              Hypothesis

1.4              Statement of problem

1.5              Significance of study

1.6              Limitation of study



2.1              Composition of bread and its requirement

2.2              Sources of contamination

2.3              Infestation of bakery products

2.4              Types of spoilage in bread

2.5              The hazard analysis critical control point

2.6              Degradation and deterioration of bread

2.7              Mycotoxin

2.8              Preservative



3.1              Sample collection

3.2              Material used for the preparation of the medium

3.3              Preparation the medium

3.4              Isolation and identification procedure

3.4.1        Isolation method

3.5              Identification of fungi


4.1              Result

4.2              Discussion


5.1              Conclusion

5.2              Recommendation




1.0              INTRODUCTION


Food can be contaminated with spoilage on pathogenic organisms ( micro). Infestation of these fungal organisms spoil the product so that it is not fit to eat; it also changes the taste so that the product is not desirable. The concept of food infestation of fungal organisms is based on the consipteration for fiutres of consumption. Infestation is defined as the over presence alone has led to its growth and microbial activity. Pathogenic organisms however can cause food poisoning. Food poisoning can arise  through infatuation of food by organisms (micro) which secrete toxins which B their consumed. The cost of  fungal infested bread resulting to  spoilage is also  great with loss of money due to wastage of the raw materials. Also considering the usefulness of this product in the community with the management of money being spent it has also helped in the sense that since it is regarded as a fast food it is being bought and consumed directly without further preparations done.  Effect of contaminated bread in the society can lead to an epidemic  of gastrointestinal disorder  where by that particular environment that consumed the contaminate bread become affected there by developing stomach upset. As a result of this a lot of consideration should be given to breads that are sent into the community to be sold and this  is done by the standardized system called HACCP ie hazards Analysis critical control point. This method is now  generally  considered as a choice for ensuring safety of foods  (jay 1996 de Boer and Beumer 1999) hazzard analysis critical control point involves identifying places in the production process where hazzard could occur. i.e. the CCp (critical control point” and putting monitoring procedures in place to prevent these hazards occurring even with this system in place samples still need to be tested  for the presence of micro organism.

Detection of most of the micro organisms requires growth of the organism on selective media which can take a number of days from isolation to identification. These method are sensitive and gives qualitative information on the number and nature of the micro organism. Present in a food sample. However, conventional methods require several day to produce result because they rely on the ability of micro organisms to multiply to visible colonies (De Boser and Beumer 1999).  Presentation  of bread commonly involves the use of propionates and  sorbates and sometime henzoates. Preservatives  are added to retain on to increase the shelf life by preventing the micro-organism responsible for the contamination of that food. There alter natives to preservatives have been  bought also. The chief types of microbial spoilage of bread as a result of fungal infestation will  also studied which is moldiness. Rapines is also  another type of bread spoilage but unfortunately it wont be studies due to the fact that it is caused by bacterial organism which unfortunately is not a fugal organisms and as a result is not in the  scope of study for this research work. Also  a spoilage not so common called CHALKY BREAD caused by a yeast like Fungi, will be diseased.


This project is based on the isolation and identification of the fungi organism responsible for the spoilage of bread. To examine the species of fungi that infest bread at room temperature.

1.3              HYPOTHESIS

H0-filamentous fungi and yeast has no effect on bread .

H1 – filamentous fungi and yeast are responsible for spoilage  of bread when infested.

1.4              STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Problems encountered by the society as a result of the consumption of coutaininated bread infested with fungal organism art circulation in the market places are related health wise, in the sease that when contaminated. Breads are eaten; it leads to caster or intestinal disorder by some fungal organism which is an a result of deposited toxins. This can lead to an epidemic, when a batch of count ammoniated breading in circulation.

1.5              SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The justification of this research study is to  ensure that a well prepared baked bread devoid of fungal growth is being circulated on sold. It is  also carried out on the basic of selling well baked breads uncontaminated so as to avoid any don’t of food poisoning associated with the ingestion of bread.


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