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(Secretarial Administration)



This dissertation is concerned with the survey of the high rate of failures in shorthand. This enables the researcher to have a broad and elaborate knowledge of the problem faced by shorthand students and how they can be tackled.

Shorthand, formally known as phonograhy is an art; a time saving system of writing by sound. The advantage can be blurted due to the excessive rate of failure.

This dissertation covers the background of the study problem and signification of shorthand. It discusses some of the concepts that will be of immense help to the writer such as mastery, basic skills, aural comprehension and method of teaching research methodology and   design used by the researcher in this study is also discussed.

The and  it is of the data collected were also presented. A survey of the high rate of failures in shorthand were also enumerated.



1.0              Introduction

1.1                                      Background to the study

1.2                                      Statement of the problem

1.3                                      The objective or purpose of the study

1.4                                      Scope or Delimitation of the study

1.5                                      Research Question

1.1                                      Hypothgesis

1.2                                      Significance of the study


2.0              Literature Review

2.1                                      Mastery

2.2                                      Basic skills

2.3                                      Aural comprehension

2.4                                      Method of teaching


3.0              Methodology

3.1                                      Research Design

3.2                                      Area of study

3.3                                      Population of the study

3.4                                      Sample and sampling produce

3.5                                      Instrument for data collection

3.6                                      Validation reliability of the research instrument

3.7                                      Method of administration of research instrument

3.8                                      Method of data analysis


4.0              Data presentation and result

Summary of result finding


5.0              discussion, Implication, recommendation

5.1                                      Discussion of result

5.2                                      Conclusion

5.3                                      Implications of  the results

5.4                                      Recommendations

5.5                                      Suggestion for further research

5.6                                      Limitations of the study




Shorthand is the art of representing spoken sounds by written signs pitman shorthand  provide a ways of  representing every sound heard in English words.

Samaha (1973: 112)  defines shorthand as a method of writing rapidly by substituting characters, abbreviations, or symbols for letters, words or phrases.

Isaac pitman published the first edition of his shorthand system in 1837. He spent half  a century improving it, and the great work has since been continued by several generations of expert writer and teachers.

Millions have used this system as a means of earning a livelihood, and today, throughout the world wherever accurate and immediately  legible recording of  spoken English is reguired in parliament and congresses of every size.

Isaac pitman devised his system after profound and epock making study of the phonetic structure of the English language. The system is a result of his scientific analysis. Systems before pitman and even systems in use today, could achieve speed only through the laborious memorization of hundreds of special forms and arbitrary abbreviations. In pitman shorthand speed and facility of writing and safety of   reading are achieved by following a coherent and comprehensive scheme: each individual sound has its signs and  sounds of the same family have signs with an appropriate family likeness, after a little practice the signs seen to produce  themselves like snapshots from the sounds and the sounds themselves seem to speak from the written page.

Historians date the beginning of shorthand with the Greek historian xenophobe, who used an ancient Greek system to write the memos of secretes. In the fourth century B.C Marcus Tulluis Tiro, a secretary to the Roman Orator cecero, invented a  shorthand system called Tiroman According to stoddard and scalter good (1983:93) the time that Tiro invented his system was not quite clear and some people so as far as to say that he stole a system used in Greece. However, most  agree that  Tiro’s notes were the first organized system that enabled a writer to  take down notes as fast as they were  said.

Although, shorthand writing has undergone many modifications since its invention, the gregg and pitman methods are the beast known system using symbols. About 1913, shorthand  written by machine was introduced and Gregg simplified version of shorthand written by machine was introduced in 1949 revised in 1963) and in the latter part of 20th century, the use of shorthand machines became widespread.

In 1973, institute of management and technology started offering secretarial study as a course.

In 1989, the N B Y E introduced advanced transcription in the curriculum and course specification studies lectures in this department relied on dictation and general principles and techniques of writing and subsequently transcription in type writer. Shorthand and has been the bare of most students. Shorthand as the name suggests spells terror and doom to the students with exeption of a far.

The pitman organization has carried out series of research and emerged with some teaching methods, techniques and even the publication of books, programmed to enable students so through this course with minimum rata of failure. However   the government  infura approved several commercial schools and colleges where shorthand is being taught attend extra classes in the   evening. Like institute of management and technology, students are being divided  into groups to create attentiveness  and interest from the students.

Inspite of these the problem of high rate of failures in shorthand still persist. 

1.2              STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Shorthand in business today is basically English. Writers/ students in this country have had to endure lots of problems in the writing of shorthand due largely good facilitators ignorance on the part of student etc. this leads to the high rate of failures in shorthand.

The problem of shorthand is not hinged on the subject propert. Most students come in with already ill convinced belief that shorthand is a difficult subject; every subject is difficult, and there are experts in all subject. This has been identified as contributory toward students high rate of failures in the subject, shorthand like mathematics is expected to have its peculiar methods and problems among others. Student ill-convinced motion that shorthand is a difficult subject inflicted a lot of psychological damage to their understanding of shorthand. It gave rise to many needs and imagined problems which hinder the much desired progress in shorthand. Some students are interested in the course but when they encounter minor problems, their interest fizzle out, the high rate of failures in shorthand is also due largely to the fact that students treat shorthand like any other  suject. They study only at the approach of an examination (i.e. when it is already too late to get the skill and the speed students should know from the earlier stage that shorthand is a delicate subject and must  be learned with assurance confidence, and consistent studying habits. It is not learned with nervousness.


            The falling are in purpose of their study survey mirity high rate of failures in shorthand.

The study will

Survey  the high rate of failures in shorthand

To identity the high rate of failures in shorthand.

Find out if the students are responsible for their failures

Find out if the teachers are responsible for the student failures.

 Identify the role of the school authorities in alleviating the problems facing the teaching and  learning of shorthand.



1.4              SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This research work covers the department of the secretarial studies institute of management and technology Enugu.

1.5              RESEARCH QUESTIONS

(1)        What are the causes of high rate of failures in shorthand?

(2)               How can problem be solved?

(3)               Would you attribute this failure rate to the students?

(4)               Could  the rate of failures be attributed to the lecturers?

(5)               What are the contraption of the school authorities alleviating the problem?


The important of the study is to survey on the high rate of failures in shorthand. The study is  contributing to the remedy of high rate of failures among the students . it will help education planners to find lasting solutions to the  problems created by the  by the subject to students there by improving their performance in the subject and creating more positive altitude towards it.

The study shall also be beneficial to new intakes who are about to commerce studies in shorthand. It will help them to have the right altitude  and orientation in the field of shorthand. It will also serve as a source of information  to those aspiring to do shorthand at higher levels. The study will help facilitators lectures to visualize the type of problems student of shorthand are bonnbd to encounter    and to device ways of handling then it will also help the researcher in   widening her know ledge  of shorthand.


The following research hypothesis  are to be answered before the end of this work:

(1)               Shorthand is the  most problematic course among all courses offered by secretarial studies.

(2)                One particular sex perform better in shorthand than the other.

(3)               Problem of shorthand  hinges on lack of teaching material for the course.

(4)               Past students of secretarial   studies land shorthand as a difficult courses.


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Project Details

Department Secretarial Administration
Project ID SEA0042
Price N3000 ($14)
CHAPTERS 5 Chapters
No of Pages 57 Pages
Methodology Simple Percentage
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word