+234 813 0686 500
+234 809 3423 853
info@grossarchive.com

THE ROLE OF SOCIAL WORK IN RURAL WATER DEVELOPMENT A STUDY OF EVBUOMORE COMMUNITY

  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:142
  • Methodology:descriptive statistics
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Sociology Project Topics & Materials)
THE ROLE OF SOCIAL WORK IN RURAL WATER DEVELOPMENT
A STUDY OF EVBUOMORE COMMUNITY

ABSTRACT
This paper evaluates the challenges of water accessibility in the rural sector and its implication to social work practice. It also reviews existing policy to highlight its strengths and weaknesses, to inform possible future review and guide new policy development in developing countries or troubleshoot existing policies. With the aid of primary and secondary sources of data therefore, this study examined the challenges of water supply in Evbuomore community and social workers involvement in ensuring the issue of inaccessibility of water is addressed.
The findings of this study support the assertion that social workers should be encouraged to support locally rooted initiatives that promote environmental sustainability. The findings from the study reinforce the idea that local 'environmental' issues, such as water are also a potent focus around which community convenes, relationships can be strengthened, community engagement encouraged, and through which the broader project of building socially just and environmentally sustainable alternatives can vigorously be pursued.Moreover, the highest challenge that the community faces is inadequate power supply which is the cause for water inaccessibility in the study area according to the respondents. They also responded that poor funding by the government is a huge challenge of water accessibility.
TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE
1.1    Background of study    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
1.2 Statement of the problem    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
1.3 Objective of the study    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
1.5    Research Questions    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
1.5 Significance of Study    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
1.6 Definition of Terms    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. Review of Relevant Concepts    -    -    -    -    -    -    
2.1.1 Overview of Water     Supply     -    -    -    -    -    
2.1.2 Community Participation In The Rural Water Supply -    -    -    
2.1.3 Historical Development Of Rural Water Supply In Nigeria -    -    -    
2.1.4 Significance Of Water From Historical Perspective--    --    -    -    
2.1.5 Consequences Of Inadequate Water Supply In Nigeria    --    -    
2.1.6 The Challenges Of Rural Water Development In Nigeria -    -    -    
2.1.7 Rural Water Development: Implications For Social Work    - -     -    
2.1.8 Community-Based Adaptation, Resilience, And Sustainability    -    
2.1.9 Conceptualizations Of Environmentally-Oriented Social Work    -    
2.2 Theoretical Framework-    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
2.2.1    Empowerment Theory    -    -    -    -        -    
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODLOGY
3.1 Introduction    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
3.2 Research Design    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
3.3 Population of the Study    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
3.4 Sample Size     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
3.5 Sampling Technique    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
3.6 Research Instrument    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
3.7  Data Analysis    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION /ANALYSIS AND DISCUSION OF FINDINGS
4.0 Introduction    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
4.1 Analysis of Respondents Characteristics    -    -    -    -    -    
4.2 Analysis of Research, Presentation and Discussion of Findings    -    -    
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, LIMITATIONS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.0Introduction     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
5.1  Summary     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
5.2   Conclusion -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
5.3Recommendations -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
References    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
Questionnaire    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1    BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Worldwide, water availability is a key issue in the 21st century. Per capita water availability is projected to fall from 6600 to 4800 m3 between 2000 and 2025 because of uneven distribution of water resources. However, most of the world's  population  will  have  below  1700  m3 per  capita  (Cosgrove  & Rijsberman, 2000).Water  availability  is  a  major  concern  in  the  rural communities of Nigeria, which supports about 30% of the country's population. Past and current high rates of population growth in the rural communities have contributed significantlyto the increase in water consumption (International Fund for Agricultural Development, 2007).
It is difficult to establish the exact degree of the importance of water to man in his arduous climb up the ladder of civilization.  It is certain, however, that without water there would be no life of any kind on the earth and that, without water readily available in adequate quantity, man's progress is tremendously hindered (Todaro & Smith, 2009). Although no actual count is possible, billions of man-days of labour are undoubtedly lost annually because of illness and death from lack of accessibility of water or water-borne diseases.  Unfortunately, the areas which can least afford this economic loss are the places where such sickness and death are most rampant.
A recent survey in rural Nigeria revealed that 38% of the communities and 48% of  all  the  households  surveyed  identified  the  lack  of  potable  water  as  their greatest problem (Federal Ministry of Water Resources, 2010). This underscores the importance of domestic water  as  a  major  resource  of  concern  to  the  rural  people,   6.4%  of  whom remained  unserved.  This  proportion  may  in  fact  be  larger:  detailed  and extensive  assessments  in  East  and  West  Africa  have  revealed  70%  over reporting  of  populations  who  use  improved  water  supply  schemes  (Briscoe  &deFerranti, 1988).
To  plan  effectively  and  develop  an  integrated  water  resource  management strategy  for  rural  communities  in  Nigeria  requires  an  understanding  of  the existing  patterns  of  water  use  and  the  socio -demographic  and  cultural  factors that  influence  such  patterns.  It  is  estimated  that  at  least  25%  of  rural  water projects  in  developing  countries  are  not  functioning,  and  in  some  countries construction  of  new  facilities does  not even keep pace with the  rate of  failure (Mu, Zhao, Heinsch, Liu, Tian, & Running, 2007).
Rathgeber (1996) observed that water planners in developing countries  usually  assume  that  households  and  other  social  groups  in  rural communities  will  change  their  habits  of  interaction  to  take  advantage of  thenew, and presumably  improved, water supply,  failing  to  recognize that such a resource will not be used optimally if the supply system does not conform to the existing  norms  of such social  groups. Over the  years, the  local populations  in arid  and  semiarid  regions  have  adapted  their  water  use  to  varying  levels  of water  availability.  The accumulated knowledge from this adaptation process ought to be incorporated into more formal analyses of sustainable water use and development (Mabogunje, 2012).
In an article discussing long-range planning for water service in the USA, Dr Abel Wolman of the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, has said: "Adequate water service, at a reasonable price, is an attainable objective. If it has not yet been attained, it is only because the skilledworkers in this field have not seen fit to define the objective, to delineate the principle which should control its implementation, to devise the structure for administrationand management, and to establish the fiscal principles which might safely andwisely provide the sinews for the project." Although  domestic  water  use  accounts  for  only  9%  of  the  total  waterconsumption  in  sub-Saharan  Africa  (World  Resources  Institute,  2007),  the benefits associated with an adequate supply, such as the effects on  health, time savings,  and  greater  productivity,  are  immense  (Vargas -Lundius, 2007).
Recent survey by Majuru. Tang, Engel, Pijanowski, & Lim, (2011), estimated that 65 million Nigerians had no access to safe water. The situation was worse in the rural areas where only 24% of the population were said to have access to safe water. Provision of clean, reliable and potable water in rural areas remain therefore a challenge considering the fact that the larger percentage of the population live in rural areas. When provision of clean water is inadequate, people are compelled to use contaminated water that later result into water related diseases and in the outbreak of these diseases. Thus, governments need to spend money on what would have been prevented by provision of clean water (Mwendera, 2006).   
The  major  sources  of  water supply for the rural populace are hand-dug wells, natural springs  and  streams,  together  with  rainfall  harvest, majority  of  which  are  highly  unreliable  during  the  dry seasons  (Makoni , Manase , &Ndamba, 2004).  As  in  other  parts  of  the country,  efforts  geared  towards  rural  development  in Nigeria and towards “water for all by the year 2020” have increased the assessment, exploration and exploitation of water resources both surface and underground (Ellen& Kellog,  2005).  
1.2    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Water,  next  to  air,  is  the  most  important  need  of  man.  Water is life and a fundamental human right.  The  human  right  to  water  entitles  everyone to sufficient  safe,  acceptable,  physically  accessible  and  affordable  water.  It therefore,  implies  that  provision  of  financially  viable,  reliable  water  supply service  of  acceptable  quantity  and  quality  for  domestic  and  industrial  uses  is essential  to  healthy  living,  poverty  alleviation  and  sustainable  socio-economic development (Aveyard, 2010). Water availability varies in space and time.
Each year, more than 2.2 million people in developing countries die from preventable  diseases  associated  with  lack  of  access  to  safe  drinking water, inadequate  sanitation  and  poor  hygiene. Over two-third of world’s poorest people are located in rural areas and engaged primarily in subsistence agriculture, their basic concern is survival (Todaro & Smith, 2009). One of the high risk factors faced by the rural peopleis water availability. There is dearth of literature in EdoState and by extension Nigeria on the impact and role of water availability on livelihood asset of the rural people.
The nature of the problem differs depending on the context -rural or urban, routine or civil emergency etc. Provision of clean domestic water for both rural dwellers should be seen as a necessity by policy makers (Phil-Eze & Oforah, 2009).  However,  this  is  not  so  for  developing  nations  where  rural  dwellers  are neglected whenever water supply schemes are being contemplated.
In Nigeria, so many programmes to improve water supply situation had been put in place by different administrations. To achieve  this  enormous  task,  the  Federal Ministry of Water Resourceshas worked in association with the state’s arm of the Ministry of Water Resources, Federal  and  States  constituted  water  Agencies,  local Government arm of the Departments of Water Resources, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO’s), as well as the influential private  individuals,  in  their  philanthropic gesture.The  success  of  rural  water  scheme  depends  on  the  synergy  between  the Governments  at  the  three  tiers,  Community  Based  Organizations,  NGO  and Development  Partners  in  planning,  organization  and  management (Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, 2009).  
 Despite this, it  is  observed  that  water or rural  water as the case may be in  Nigeria  suffer  from  poor coordination, poor  maintenance  culture,  poor technical  or  institutional  structure,  inadequate  funding,  irregular  disbursements  of subventions, inappropriate infrastructures as well as lack of adequate quality monitoring and evaluation, lack of clear policy direction, lack of focus in terms of goals and objectives ( which resulted in the country’s inability to achieve full coverage of the rural population with safe water).Providing physically accessible clean water is essential for enabling women and girls  to  devote  more  time  to  the  pursuit  of  education,  income  generation  and even  the  construction  and  management  of  water  and  sanitation  facilities(Ezemonye & Emeribe 2011). Determining  whose  shoulder  lies  the  burden  of  fetching  water  and  how convenience  the  access  to  water  is  in  rural  communities  of  EdoState  is justifiable.
Human  uses  of  freshwater  resources  are  increasing  rapidly  as  the  population rises.  As  this  happens,  less  water  is  left  to  support  aquatic  and  associated ecosystems.  To  minimize  future  human  water  shortages  and  undesirable environmental  impacts,  more  equitable  sharing  of  water  resources  between society and  nature  is required (Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, 2009).  This will require physical quantities and social values to be placed on both human and aquatic ecosystem requirements. Current water valuation systems are dominated by economic values and there is need for new  quantification  and  valuation  methods  that  take  more  account  of  human well-being and environmental impacts. The key to the effective implementation of these more equitable water allocation methods is the use of catchment -based integrated water resources management (Wallace, Acreman & Sullivan, 2003).
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The broad objective of this study is;
1.    To determine the extent of rural water development in Nigeria.
2.    To determine the factors hindering rural water development in Nigeria.
3.    To ascertain the government’s role in rural water development projects.
4.    To determine the implication of social work to rural water development.
1.4    RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In line with the objectives of the study, the following research questions are raised:
1.    What is the extent of rural water development in Nigeria?
2.    What are the factors hindering rural water development in Nigeria?
3.    What is the government’s role in rural water development projects?
4.    What is the implication of social work to rural water development?
1.5    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The issue of rural water development cannot be overemphasized as it has been stated earlier.  Inadequate water supply coupled by sanitation had been the bane of rural communities in Nigeria. It is estimated in Nigeria that as many as two thirds of the rural population do not have access to safe water (WHO/UNICEF, 2008). To make matters worse, the one third of the population that has access to safe water is also struggling to maintain their supply facilities.
Over 65% of the population lives in rural communities and this is projected to remain so until the end of the century. Most of these rural communities do not have modern water facilities. They depend on traditional sources that are generally of questionable quality, insufficient quantity and often liable to seasonal failures (Harvey, & Reed, 2004). Without sustainable rural water supply, the number of people having access to waste will continue to decline and those exposed to water related and water borne disease will continue to rise (World Resources Institute, 2008). Waterborne diseases, sometimes in an acute form, are therefore endemic in many of the rural areas. In order to solve this problem, a reliable and consistent low cost water supply scheme based on the available water resources in the communities must be designed and constructed.
The significance of this research study to social work theory and practice is threefold. First, provision of water is critical to the improvement of the quality of life of people because having access to sufficient quantities of clean and safe water enhances the health and productive lives of people in rural areas. This is important both in social and community development promoted by social workers (GRZ 1994, Bernstein & Gray 1997). Second, social workers have a valuable contribution to make to the water supply sector, which is at the center of the fabric of rural communities, because of their understanding and skill in dealing with social issues. Findings from this research study would contribute to the body of knowledge in social work. And lastly, research findings could also be used by social workers in the field of rural water supply to promote sustainability of rural water supply facilities in Nigeria and other third world countries.
1.6    DEFINITIONS OF CONCEPTS
Community Participation: This is a process where community members come together to take collective actions and generate solutions to common problems.
Economic Development: This is a process by which a nation improves the economic, political and social wellbeing of its people.
Rural  Community:  Rural  people  usually  live  in  a  farmstead  or  in  groups  of houses  containing about 5000  persons, separated by farmland, pasture, trees or scrubland. Most rural people spend the majority of their working time on farms.
Sanitation: This refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatments and disposal of human excrement and sewage.
Sustainable Development: This is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while at the same time sustaining the ability of natural system to natural provide the natural resources and ecosystem service upon which the economy and society depends.
Water Accessibility: The degree to which a household can obtain the water it needs from any source in a reliable way for agriculture or other purposes.
Water Scarcity: The point at which the aggregate impact of all users impinges on the supply or quality of water under prevailing institutional arrangements to the extent that the demand by all sectors, including the environment, cannot be satisfied fully.
Water Supply: This is the provision of water by public utilities commercial organization, community endeavor or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes.
Rural Water Development: The act of making rural region or water more productive or useful.
Social Work: Is a profession concerned with helping individuals, families, groups and communities to enhance their individual and collective well-being. It aims to help people develop their skills and their ability to use their own resources and those of the community to resolve problems.
Implication for Social Work: To improve water-related services and delivery in rural areas per ward and village, as is done for other social services

THE ROLE OF SOCIAL WORK IN RURAL WATER DEVELOPMENT A STUDY OF EVBUOMORE COMMUNITY

Share This

Details

Type Project
Department Sociology
Project ID SOC0405
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 142 Pages
Methodology descriptive statistics
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

500
Leave a comment...

    Details

    Type Project
    Department Sociology
    Project ID SOC0405
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 142 Pages
    Methodology descriptive statistics
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

    Related Works

    ABSTRACT In the years ahead, meeting the challenges of food security in a water scarce world will require drastic changes in the way water resources are managed. Accordingly, Nigerian’s water sector has seen tremendous changes over the years... Continue Reading
    THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS   (A CASE STUDY OF COMMUNITY SELF-HELP ORGANIZATION IN AWGU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA ) CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION         Over the years, successive Non-Governmental Organization Agencies in Nigeria have demonstrated appreciable interest towards the provision of... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT This work examined the role of community Banks in the Rural Development. This research topic is of five chapters. The chapter one is telling us the main body which contains the historical development of the community bank in rural development and the problems of the study, the objective of the study, significant, delimitation and... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT This research work is designed primarily to examine and assess the roles being played by non-governmental organizations in the development of rural areas. The work is also designed to identify the causes of the low rate of involvement of the non-governmental organization in the development activities and the possible ways of making them... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT This project work is a study of the impart of Community Banks in Rural Development: case study Uli Community Bank Ltd, Uli. In carrying out the research, questionnaires were used, which the researcher made available to the manager, staff and customers of Uli Community Bank. Information for this research was collected from primary,... Continue Reading
    IMPACT OF COMMUNITY BANKS ON RURAL DEVELOPMENT (A CASE STUDY OF UMUEZE COMMUNITY BANK ENUGU). ABSTRACT The establishment of community banks by the Federal Government with particular reference to Umueze Community Bank Enugu was necessitated by the desire of Government to improve the standard of living of the urural dwellers and to encourage rapid... Continue Reading
    TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE APPROVAL PAGE DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT TABLE OF CONTENT CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM 1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY 1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 1.4 LIMITAITON OF THE STUDY 1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS CHAPTER TWO 2.0 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2.1 INTRODUCTION 2.2 RURAL... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT This is the summary of the research work form chapter one to five. If actually contain what research work supposed to contain except background of the study and objective of the study. Look at the chapter 3 and 4 it is properly done, it is telling us how the data collected is presented and then analyzed. TABLE OF CONTENT Title page... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT This is the summary of the research work form chapter one to five. If actually contain what research work supposed to contain except background of the study and objective of the study. Look at the chapter 3 and 4 it is properly done, it is telling us how the data collected is presented and then analyzed. TABLE OF CONTENT Title page... Continue Reading
    TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM 1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY 1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 1.4 LIMITAITON OF THE STUDY 1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS CHAPTER TWO 2.0 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2.1 INTRODUCTION 2.2 RURAL BANKING... Continue Reading