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PERCEIVED CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF DRUG ABUSE

  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:81
  • Methodology:Simple Percentage
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Public Health Project Topics & Materials)
PERCEIVED CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF DRUG ABUSE AMONG PEOPLE OF ILORIN WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, KWARA STATE, NIGERIA

TABLE OF CONTENTS    
    Pages
Title page    i
Certification Page    ii
Dedication    iii
Acknowledgement    iv
Table of Contents    vi
List of Table    ix
Abstract    x
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION    
Background of the Study    1
Statement of the Problem    6
Research Questions    7
Research Hypotheses    8
Purpose of the Study    8
Significance of the Study    9
Scope of the Study    10
Operational Definition of Terms    11
CHAPTER TWO:  REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE    
Conceptual Framework    14
Theoretical Framework    15
Concept of Drug Abuse    17
Some of the Causes of Drug Abuse    19
Effects of Drug Abuse and Abuse on Students    21
Socio-economic Effects of Drug Abuse    23
Causes and Prevention of Drug Abuse    26
Appraisal of the Review of Related Literature    38
CHAPTER THREE:METHODOLOGY    
Research Design    45
Population of the Study    46
Sample and Sampling Techniques    46
Research Instrument    47
Validity of the Instrument    48
Reliability of the Instrument    49
Procedure for Data Collection    49
Methods of Data Analysis    50

CHAPTER FOUR:    PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS OF DATAAND DISCUSSION

Results    51
Discussion of Findings    61
CHAPTER FIVE:  SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary    63
Conclusion    64

 

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Recommendations    65
References    66
Appendix    70

 






















































viii
 

LIST OF TABLES    
Pages    
Table 1: Common Abuse Drug in Nigeria    21
Table 2: Sample Size Distribution from selected Community in Ilorin South    
Local Government Area, Kwara State    42
Table 3: Demographic Data of the respondents    47
Table 4: Percentile analysis on Perception of Peer Group as a cause of drug    
abuse among people    48
Table 5: Percentile analysis on Perception of Family Background as a cause of    
drug abuse among people    49
Table 6: Percentile analysis on Perception of School drug intervention strategy    
as a prevention of drug abuse among students    50

Table 7: Percentile analysis on Perception of Non-Governmental organization drug

intervention strategy as a prevention of drug abuse among students    51

Table 8: Chi-square analysis showing students� perception towards peer group as a

cause of drug abuse among students    52

Table 9: Chi-square analysis showing students� perception towards family background

as a cause of drug abuse among students    53

Table 10: Chi-square analysis showing students� perception towards school drug

intervention strategy as a prevention of drug abuse among students    54

Table 11: Chi-square analysis showing students� perception towards Non-Governmental

organization drug intervention strategy as a prevention of drug abuse among

students    55

 











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Abstract

Drug abuse also called substance dependency or chemical dependency is a disease that is characterized by a destructive pattern of drug abuse that leads to individual or society problems. This study was carried out to investigate perceived causes and prevention of drug abuse among people of Ilorin West Local Government Area, Kwara State. The purpose of this study was to investigate; (i) peer group; and (ii) family background as perceived causes of drug abuse; and (iii) school drug intervention strategy; and (iv) Non-Governmental organization drug intervention strategy as perceived prevention of drug abuse among people of Ilorin West Local Government Area, Kwara State.

The descriptive research design of the survey type was adopted for the study. Multi-stage sampling technique consisting of purposive, proportionate and simple random sampling techniques was used to select a sample size of two hundred (200) respondents from people of Ilorin West Local Government Area of Kwara State. A researcher-designed structured questionnaire validated by three (3) experts from the Department of Health Promotion and Environmental Health Education, University of Ilorin, Nigeria was used for the data collection. A reliability coefficient (r) of 0.76 was obtained through split-half method. Data collection was conducted by the researcher. Inferential statistics of Chi-square (? 2) was used to analyze the formulated null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance, using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 23.0.

The findings revealed that;

i.    Peer group is significantly perceived as a cause of drug abuse among people of Ilorin West Local

Government Area, Kwara State. Since the calculated ?2 value of 124.20 > the critical value of 16.92

ii.    Family background is significantly perceived as a cause of drug abuse among people of Ilorin West Local Government Area, Kwara State. Since the calculated ?2 value of 93.84 > the critical value of 16.92.

iii.    School drug intervention strategy is significantly perceived as prevention of drug abuse among

people of Ilorin West Local Government Area, Kwara State. Since the calculated ?2 value of 136.19 values > the critical value is 16.92.

iv.    Non-Governmental organization drug intervention strategy is significantly perceived as prevention

of drug abuse among people of Ilorin West Local Government Area, Kwara State. Since the calculated ?2 value of 80.76 values > the critical value is 16.92.

Based on the findings, it was concluded that peer group and family background can cause drug abuse while school drug intervention strategy and Non-Governmental organization drug intervention strategy can be a prevention of drug abuse among people of Ilorin West Local Government Area, Kwara State. Therefore, the researcher recommended that parents should discourage their children from associating with bad group which can influence them to drug abuse; health educators should sensitize parents through campaigns on dangers involved in abusing drugs in the presence of their children and also to ensure that they monitor the group their children associate with; and also Government should establish a community education program for the prevention of drug abuse with children as the main actors of the program.

Word count: 496
 



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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION


Background of the Study


According to a United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) Report

(2005), about 200 million people, or 5 percent of the world�s population age between 15 and 65years have used drugs at least once in the last 12 months. Likewise, according to the World Drug (2005) reported that, the use of illicit drugs in all Nations has increased in recent years. The report goes on to note that the increasing availability of a variety of drugs to an ever widening socio-economic spectrum of consumers is disconcerting, although the main problem at the global level continues to be opiates (notably heroine) followed by cocaine.

Drug abuse also called substance dependent or chemical dependency is a disease that is characterized by a destructive pattern of drug abuse that leads to significant problems involving tolerance, to or withdrawal from the substance, as well as other problems that the use of the substance can cause to sufferer, either socially or in terms of their work or school performance (Akus 2010). A drug addict is said to be someone whose life has become dependent on drugs, hence drugs abuse (Obaje 2009). Drug abuse is dependence on a legal or illegal drug or medication, drug abuse can cause serious long-term consequences, including problems with physical and mental health, relationship, and the law (Moronkola 2003).
 

Mentally derailed individuals on our streets, broken homes and neurotic personality individuals have been on the increase. Drug abuse described by Kobiowu (2006) is the inability of person to control his use of a substance/drug. He said further that for an addict, drug use is more than a habit, his desire for the drug also involves physical dependence i.e. an addict suffers a painful withdrawal illness if he stops the use of the drug. Substance abuse has become a national and international problem which affects every member of the society and all sectors either directly or indirectly. More than 90% of adolescents in the United States of America would have consumed alcohol at a time before graduating from High School, 5070 would have consumed marijuana, 1770 would have consumed cocaine and 1270 hallucinogens. And of the 25,000 accidental deaths among youths annually approximately 4070 are alcohol-related (Asperheim 1992; Suchman & Suniya, 2007).

Bozarth (2001) viewed abuse as a behavioral pattern of compulsive drug use characterized by overwhelming involvement with the use of a drug. A psychiatrist said that most therapists today believe that an addict is disease and cannot control his or her drug use anymore than a cancer victim can control the growth of a tumor. He went further that the addicts should not be absolved of their responsibilities by convincing them they have a permanent disease that can be managed but can never be cured.

Aronson, Akert and Wilson (2006) said drug dependence involves compulsive drug seeking behavior while psychological dependence involves feelings of satisfaction
 

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and pleasure from taking the drug. These feelings perceived as extremely desirable by the drug-dependent person contribute to acute intoxication, development and maintenance of drug abuse patterns and return to drug taking behaviour after periods of abstinence. Gossop (2003) explains that physical effects of dependence on drugs include body aches, hot or feverish feeling, perspiration, nausea, nasal discharges, muscle cramps, tremors, and irritability. He went further to say that all these effects produce anxiety, restlessness and insecurity, and that drug is sought to obtain relief from distress.

There is no certain agreement about the causes of drug abuse because the causes of drug use are frequent and varied. They comprise individual and family characteristics, social and environmental factors (Maithya, 2009). One of the individual factors is low self-confidence; some teenagers and young persons have a negative attitude toward their abilities, and consider themselves worthless, in spite of their high capability. They feel failure and frustration (Mahdie, 2016). Parental factors are basically the relationship patterns which exist between parents and children. Parental factors exert significant

influence on the overall development of the child. Parents? use of drugs has been identified as relevant to adolescent addictive behavior (Iruloh & Amadi, 2008).

The peer group establishes the norms, standard of thought and behavior to be pursued by its members. Consequently, the peer group may exert a big influence on
adolescents? substance or process abuse. Also adolescents? addictive behavior brings acknowledgement and respect from peers. Adolescents, especially those who are socially
 

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weak, may choose drug abuse as a means to integrate themselves into a peer group, and thereby increase self-esteem and decrease anxiety (Onukwufor, 2016).

Drug use by students has hampered education and management in Nigerian secondary schools. In Nigeria, recent statistics suggest that one in every three secondary school students consumes alcohol. Another 8.3% smoke cigarettes while almost one in every ten (9.1%) chew Miraa. About 3% smoke bhang and use hard drugs like heroin, cocaine, mandrax and tranquilizers (The DailyTimes, 2004). In Nigeria a report by NAFDAC (2008) found that alcohol is also the most commonly abused drug with about 61% of the population engaging in its use. The same report indicated that 40.9% of students were abusing alcohol in Nairobi Province and 26.3% in Central Province. According to Perkinson (2002), alcohol is a central nervous system depressant and dulls the brain making learning a difficult task. When students abuse alcohol their reasoning becomes impaired and education becomes of less priority in their life. Drug abuse also affects the brain, resulting in a major decline in its functions.

Geographically, Bangladesh is located in the middle of the world�s largest growing narcotics belt: the golden triangle (Laos, Myanmar, and Thailand), the golden crescent (Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran), and the golden wedge (Khan & Hossain, 1996). Besides this, India, an important opium producer, is also located close to Bangladesh. So the Bangladeshi people have become addicted easily. According to Family Health International about 50 people of Bangladesh are drug addicted (The Daily Kalerkantho,
 

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2011). The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that, about 50 people in the world are affected by the abuse of drugs (Shawkatuzzaman, 2003).

When a man is affected by drugs he cannot come out from this practice, even an addict has: a compulsory need or desire to continue drug taking, a tendency to increasing doses day by day, and eventual dependence on it. Many of the adolescent users begin their experiment with drugs though smoking cannabis (marijuana) cigarettes, specially prepared with relatively higher intoxicant items, usually in company with their closest friends. They may graduate from such practices to the use of heroin. Typically, they begin by sniffing it (snorting) and finally injecting it intravenously (shooting the mainline) (Hossain & Mamun, 2006).

Odejide (2014) observed that the reasons advanced by the students for taking drug

are: to feel on top like adults, to feel good, to get excited, to be like friends and to be like

stars. The abuse of these drugs which leads to abuse among these students gradually

progresses to affect their academic performance and cause a host of evil happenings on

the campus and in our society, such as incessant occurrence of road traffic accidents as a

result of effects of these substances, in fact some students indulge in exam-malpractices

while others breakdown during examinations leading to failure and eventual drop-outs,

some become rude and arrogant to lecturers and parents and occasionally causing riots

and chaos on the campuses while some grow up to become criminal in the society leading

them into prison-yards. However, the main objective of this work is to study the
 



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perceived causes and consequences of drug abuse among students in Obbo-Ayegunle, Ekiti Local Government Area, Kwara State.

Statement of problem


It was observed by the researcher that the menace of drug abuse is rampant in the society especially among the youth. And this is in line with a report by NDLEA (2013) which stated that substance abuse is a major problem in our society. Obasanjo (2014) also asserted that abuse of illicit drug was described as a significant challenge, particularly in Rivers and Lagos, aside from marijuana the most commonly used drugs were said to be over-the-counter prescription medications such as tramadol, codeine syrup, Exol and Rohypnol.

The researcher witnessed a scenario in Ilorin on the 21st of August 2018 during Ileya Carnival. Some sets of youths organized a party in a restaurant to celebrate the day. They made available, lots of different distilled alcoholic beverages such as gin, alomo, babyoku to mention but a few, cigarette and marijuana. They drank until they intoxicated. Then, fight broke out among them; in fact, two of them were stabbed. If not for the intervention of law enforcement agency, it would have led to many deaths. This shows that the issue of drug abuse has gone beyond a mere and simple issue, it can be seen as a problem to the society and this made Akanbi, Anyoi, Muhammad and Ajiboye, (2014) to make a conclusion that drug abuse contributes to one of the deadliest menaces faced by Nigerian today and identified it as a social vice that must be eradicated.
 

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However, in the course of the epidemic of drug abuse among the people of Ilorin West Local Government, the researcher seeks to find out the perceived causes and prevention of drug abuse among the people of Ilorin West Local Government, Kwara State, Nigeria.

Research Questions

The following research questions were raised for this study:

i.    Will peer group be perceived as a cause of drug abuse among people of Ilorin West Local Government Area, Kwara State?

ii.    Will family background be perceived as a cause of drug abuse among people of Ilorin West Local Government Area, Kwara State?

iii.    Will school drug intervention strategy be perceived as a prevention of drug abuse among people of Ilorin West Local Government Area, Kwara State?

iv.    Will Non-Governmental organization drug intervention strategy be perceived as a prevention of drug abuse among people of Ilorin West Local Government Area, Kwara State?

Research Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses were formulated and tested for this study:

i.    Peer group will not significantly be perceived as a cause of drug abuse among people of Ilorin West Local Government Area, Kwara State.

ii.    Family background will not significantly be perceived as a cause of drug abuse among people of Ilorin West Local Government Area, Kwara State.
 
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iii.    School drug intervention strategy will not significantly be perceived as a prevention of drug abuse among people of Ilorin West Local Government Area, Kwara State.

iv.    Non-Governmental organization drug intervention strategy will not significantly be perceived as a prevention of drug abuse among people of Ilorin West Local Government Area, Kwara State.

Purpose of the study

This study aims at determining, examining and investigating the perceived causes and prevention of Drug abuse among people of Ilorin West Local Government Area, Kwara State, Nigeria. Specifically, the purpose of this study is to:

i.    determine whether peer group would be perceived as a cause of drug abuse among people of Ilorin West Local Government Area, Kwara State.

ii.    assess whether family background would be perceived as a cause of drug abuse among people of Ilorin West Local Government Area, Kwara State.

iii.    investigate whether school drug intervention strategy would be perceived as a prevention of drug abuse among people of Ilorin West Local Government Area, Kwara State.

iv.    determine whether Non-Governmental organization drug intervention strategy would be perceived as a prevention of drug abuse among people of Ilorin West Local Government Area, Kwara State.
 



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Significance of the Study

It is believed that the findings of this study would be of great benefit to youth, parents, community leaders, school administration, government at all levels, local and international Non-Governmental Organizations in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Kwara State.

The findings of this study would make the youth in Ilorin West Local Government Area not to involve in taking any drugs/ alcohol or self prescribed drug, thereby reducing the consequence of drug abuse. It would also enlighten the parents to pay more attention to their children and discourage them from associating with peers that can influence them on abusing drugs.

Health educators could use the findings of this study to disseminate information about the causes and consequences of drug abuse through organized seminars, health counselling and pamphlets dissemination. The study would serve as reference point for government at all levels to fund sensitization programmes on the socio-demographic influencing drug abuse among Nigerians.

It is also believed that the findings of this study would guide government at all levels to ensure that health educator or health counsellors are well trained and placed in all the government school so as to discourage students from engaging in drug abuse. And the rate at which alcohol is been advertised on media should be stop. Above all, this study would help students to identify common drugs that can harm their healthful living as a student.
 

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Scope and Delimitation of the Study

This study was delimited to perceived causes and prevention of drug abuse among people of Ilorin West Local Government Area, Kwara State such as peer group; family background; school drug intervention strategy; and Non-Governmental organization drug intervention strategy. Only selected wards in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Kwara State were included in this study, whereas wards that are not selected in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Kwara State were excluded from the study. The

population for this study comprises all people between the age of 18 � 45 years in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Kwara State. The sample sizes consist of 200 residents selected from the wards selected in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Kwara State. A researcher developed questionnaire was used to elicit information on variables under the study such as peer group; family background; school drug intervention strategy; and Non-Governmental organization drug intervention strategy. The statistical tool for this study was descriptive statistics of frequency counts and simple percentage and non-

parametric inferential statistics of Chi-square (?2) was used to analyzed and test the stated hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level of significance using statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 23.0.

Operational Definition of Terms

Abuse: what has been part of someone which the person find it difficult to stay away from without doing it in a day
 


Causes: things that makes someone to be addicted in the use of drug, which he/ she can not stay away from a day without making use of drug

Drug Abuse: Use of drugs for purpose other than medical reasons. It is the to misuse of any psychotropic substances resulting in changes in bodily functions in a negative way socially, cognitively or physically.

Drug: A drug is any substance which when taken into the body may alter one or more of its functions.

People: these are group of residents living in Ilorin West Local Government Area which

are between the age of 18 � 45 years


Perceived: The belief held by people of Ilorin West Local Government Area concerning the causes and prevention of drug abuse

Prevention: It is the way of avoiding the outcome or negative result of drug abuse
 


PERCEIVED CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF DRUG ABUSE

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Details

Type Project
Department Public Health
Project ID PUH0106
Price ₦3,000 ($20)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 81 Pages
Methodology Simple Percentage
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Public Health
    Project ID PUH0106
    Price ₦3,000 ($20)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 81 Pages
    Methodology Simple Percentage
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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