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Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Aframomum Melegueta in Diabetic Wistar Albino Rats

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  • Pages:50
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(Bio-Chemistry Project Topics & Materials)

TITLE PAGE


THE EFFECT OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF AFRAMOMUM MELEGUETA ON SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE ACTIVITY IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC WISTAR ALBINO RATS




BY

EBELEME   EBENEZER

NAU/ 2012474175

SUBMITTED TO

THE DEPARTMENT OF APPLIED BIOCHEMISTRY

FACULTY OF BIOSCIENCES

IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF A BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (B.Sc) DEGREE IN APPLIED BIOCHEMISTRY.

NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY,

AWKA.



AUGUST, 2016



APPROVAL PAGE

This is to certify that this research project titled “ The effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Aframomum melegueta on superoxide dismutase activity in alloxan induced diabetic wistar albino rats” submitted by Ebeleme,  Ebenezer for the award of a bachelor of science (B.Sc) degree in Applied Biochemistry of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka is a bonafide record of research work carried out by him under my supervision.


………………………..…                                    …………………………

Dr. (Mrs.) C.N. Ezekwesili                                      Date

(Supervisor)


………………………….                                     …………………………

Dr. (Mrs.) C.N. Ezekwesili                                        Date

(Head of Department)


……………………………..                                 …………………………..

External Examiner                                                    Date




DEDICATION

This work is dedicated to God and to my wonderful parents




















ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to express my gratitude to my supervisor Dr. (Mrs.) Ezekwesili, C.N. for her creative participation in the course of this work. Special thanks to the staff of the department of Applied  Biochemistry, Nnamdi  Azikiwe University, Awka for their contribution towards the successful accomplishment of this research work. 

I also want to thank my parents; Mr and Mrs Ebeleme, my brothers; Ezekiel, Joshua , Jeremiah and my sister; Mrs. Magdalene, Chukwuemeka David.

Finally, I wish to acknowledge Assemblies of God Student Fellowship (AGSF), The Redeemed Christian Fellowship (RCF) and all other families whose support have remained priceless.








TABLE OF CONTENS

Title page---------------------------------------------------------------i

Approval page---------------------------------------------------------ii

Dedication-------------------------------------------------------------iii

Acknowledgement----------------------------------------------------iv

Table of contents------------------------------------------------------v

Abstract---------------------------------------------------------------vi

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction-----------------------------------------------------------1

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature review-------------------------------------------------7

2.1 Medicinal plant---------------------------------------------------7

2.2 Botanical classification------------------------------------------9

2.3 Botanical description-------------------------------------------10

2.3.1 Uses------------------------------------------------------------10

2.3.2 Propagation----------------------------------------------------11

2.3.3  Zingiberaceae-------------------------------------------------12

2.3.4 Characteristics------------------------------------------------13

2.3.5 Composition---------------------------------------------------13

2.4 Alloxan-----------------------------------------------------------14

2.5 Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS--------------------------------15

2.6 Antioxidants-----------------------------------------------------16

2.7    Superoxide dismutase (SOD)------------------------------17

2.7.1 Structure of superoxide dismutase-----------------------20

2.7.2 Role in disease-----------------------------------------------22

2.7.3 Pharmacological activity------------------------------------23

2.7.4 Cosmetic uses------------------------------------------------24

CHAPTER THREE

3.0  Materials and method-----------------------------------------26

3.1 Materials---------------------------------------------------------26

3.1.1  Apparatus and Equipment ---------------------------------26

3.1.2 Biological materials-------------------------------------------27

3.1.3 Chemicals/Reagent ------------------------------------------27

3.1.4 Drug used------------------------------------------------------27

3.2 Method------------------------------------------------------------28

3.2.1 Identification and Sample collection------------------------28

3.2.2 Preparation of hydroalcoholic exract-----------------------28

3.2.3 Determination of the yield of Aframomum melegueta-------29

3.2.4 Preparation of alloxan----------------------------------------29

3. 2.5 Effect of alloxan on experimental animals-----------------29

3.2.6 Experimental animals and design---------------------------30

3.2.7 Sacrificing of the rats and serum collection----------------31

3.2.8 Superoxide dismutase activity study-----------------------32

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0  Results----------------------------------------------------------34

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 Discussion and Conclusion-----------------------------------36

References------------------------------------------------------------38

Appendix 1-----------------------------------------------------------45

Appendix 2-----------------------------------------------------------49

















ABSTRACT

The effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Aframomum melegueta on superoxide dismutase activity in alloxan induced diabetic wistar albino rats was investigated. Diabetes mellitus was induced with 150 mg/kg body weight of alloxan intraperitoneally (i.p). A total of twenty albino rats divided into five groups with each grouping containing four rats. The negative control group was not diabetic while the positive control group was diabetic but was untreated, group three was treated with 50 mg/kg , group four was treated with 100 mg/kg body weight of the extract and group five was treated with 20 mg/70 kg body weight of glibenclamide. Their blood glucose levels were checked after each day of treatment for three days. Alloxan increased the blood glucose level by 53%, 35%, 69%, 57%, 39%  in the respective groups respectively. Doses at 50 mg/kg body weight of extract and 100 mg/kg body weight of extract showed an increase in SOD activity. The mean SOD activity obtained are 1.62, 1.65,1.76,1.69 and 1.50  IU × 10-4 for the negative control, positive control, group 3, group 4 and group 5. Increased SOD activity is usually observed in diabetes mellitus due to increased generation of free radicals. Therefore, insignificant increase (p> 0.05) in SOD activity observed following the administration of the extract at 50 mg/kg indicates that there was a decreased or reduced generation of free radicals.

Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Aframomum Melegueta in Diabetic Wistar Albino Rats

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Details

Type Project
Department Bio-Chemistry
Project ID BCH0154
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
No of Pages 50 Pages
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Bio-Chemistry
    Project ID BCH0154
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    No of Pages 50 Pages
    Format Microsoft Word

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