The fact that communication regard at area of print media is an indispensable factor in all aspects of human relation, is now too obvious to require any emphasis. As it was, the world revolves around the forum of communication networks.
In the communication network, the print media serve as the bedrock, supplying all the necessary ingredients for the smooth and uninterrupted flow of information. Indeed, the role of print media in the communication process is very vital in the development strategies of any nation.
Generally, the print media of mass communication, viz. Newspapers, magazines. Handbills etc are very important modern social processes. They bring public issues to the fore before wider readers other than can be reached by public meetings or inter-personal communication. For instance, the print media play an active part in broadening our enjoyment of life, furthering our knowledge
of things in our immediate as well as distant environment and getting information to us which stimulates individual and group action. Through these varies thrust, the process of social change is given more impetus by the print media.
The aim of this research is to find out “the role of print media in sport development” print media as a veritable source of information, entertainment and education is like the weather. And like the weather, it is always with is and providing us with constant material for conversation and adverse comments.
The history of communication regards to print media is itself originated during the mediaeval period, it is full of flash points and wonder points signifying vital landmarks in the domain of human relation. It is a notation of milestones and critical discoveries which has continues to power the engine of development to greater pedestal across time.
The history of modern sport however, can be originally traced to the ancient Greece about (778BC). At first when the City State sent only their aristocrats to the game, the sport were then conducted in a spirit of amateurism. The aristocrats possessed the money and leisure time to practice for the strenuous events. Popular sports in ancient time include foot racing, wrestling, boxing, archery, discus and javelin throwing. But as the advent of print media began to pervade the games, the city-states took to subsidize their best sportment.
There are many print media in Nigeria today: Newspapers, Magazines, Computer Cable wire etc, all trying to process and package sport news in a way that will attract and hold the interest of their readers. They vary in the kind of sports news stories they carry. While some key emphasis on foreign sports news there are still others that package more of local sports news stories. This diversity in the kinds of sports news stories print media carry is just to satisfy the interest of the heterogeneous group of people in the country.
Many sports lovers, fans and readers of sports news, will find it difficult to imagine sports life and existence without print media communication. Just think how it would be like if Nigeria were in South-Africa for the African cup of Nations and the match story is not carried by the Newspaper or magazine. Or you rush tot he street or any departmental store to check for Newspaper or magazine that carried the match, yet no newspaper or magazine carried the story. If such would occur many sports lovers would feel that the world was in the grip of some cataclysm. Many of the readers of sports news story would not want to experience such deprivation more than once in their life.
Several avenues exist for analyzing roles of print media in sports development, this study focuses on why some people love to read sport story and others ignore it. The kind of printing medium that attracts people describes their attention, habits and the degree of interest one has on sport also plays a part on how one will appreciate the role of print media in sports.
In addition to finding the role of print media in sports development, this study is also projected toward finding out what will happen to sports if there is no print media industry like Newspaper and Magazine etc.
Since there is other, existing literature on the subject matter, this work therefore is intended to serve as a reference, not only to interested sports lovers and research students who might in future carry out studies on the importance or role of print media in sports but also to remedy the chromic and unimaginable problem left in this interesting aspect of human endeavour.
2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW
There have been no previous studies done on this subject area. But it is hoped that reference would be made to a number of researcher carried out in other places that have similar themes.
According to Michael Clark, Director local Government Training Board, Elliott Medway in leisure services year book 1989/90, the role of the print media in sports was so unhidden that even today, the society has been conscientious through the value and significant of communication.
The Newspaper and Magazine have brought every information relating to sports close to our door steps and this placed the society at advantage. Many sporting events including football have gone scientific in actual practice only because certain basic electronic printing equipment were used to publicize it.
The important observation by the new Encyclopaedia Britannica on the role of print media in sports is that print medium make the athletics or sportman and woman to become as markable as the sports they play.
“Thanks to Newspaper and Magazine etc exposure, athlete have become as marketable as the sports they play”. Now some players, Nigerian’s Daniel Amokachi perhaps being the prime example, make as much money through promotions and business income as they do playing games.
Dr. Judy White, Centre for Urban and Regional studies, school of public policy, University Birmingham says “No sports sees the light of the day unless print media plays an identifiable or unidentifiable role” what he refers here is that without the help of print media sports cannot take place. Because, it is through this medium that you can send communication across to decoders or the readers of sports news story.
Encyclopaedia Britannica 11 page 112 has it that the development of sports was as a result of the increasing urbanization of society i.e. the emergence of towns with relatively stable population. Also the Tie breakers for terms set have been adopted to the same reason.
According to the new standard Encyclopaedia SMA volume 14, Newspaper made sports more popular than ever before. According to it, sports experienced a tremendous growth during the 2oth century. Professional team came into prominence, and woman began to participate in a wide variety of sports. In U.S. by mid –Century increased leisure and time and the impact of Newspaper and magazine made sports more popular than ever before.
On whether there is any alternative to print media communication in sports development, Dr Judy White had the opportunity to delve into this issue when he says “No sports sees the light of the day unless communication plays on identifiable or unidentifiable role” this simply shows that although there was little or no effect on routine activities, people did feel generally uneasy and out “out of touch with the world” in the absence of print media communication in sports.
However, the role of print media communication in sport development cannot be said to be in its entirely positive. According to the Edition published by William Benton and Helen Heingway Benton “Newspaper and Magazine etc on sports have not been entirely beneficial”. Over exposure almost killed professional boxing minor league baseball in U.S. dried up when Newspaper and magazine permitted the organisation of regular sports and schedules. And thereby the need of communicating to the complex society.
It is no coincidence that the most successful recent major sports development in Nigeria came through the print media communicating. Promoting sportsman and woman performance, fostering a commitment to an activity in it’s own right and promoting the opportunity and desire for improved competitive results. In other words, this means assisting those who want to get better at what they do. Promoting excellence involves assisting those who wish to reach the pinnacle of sporting performance at either regional or national level and international levels. William Benton and Helen Heingway Benton in the New Encyclopaedia Britannica volume 17, 15th Edition has a good example of the role of print media in sports. According to them, in U.S. there were only 24 professional sports franchise in 1960, mostly in the North –east quadrant of the county. The exposure created instant interest elsewhere and by 1970 there were 87 franchise throughout the nation.
They had it that the games themselves are affected by commercial time outs, which have the potential to affect “Momentum” and scores. Once universally condemned, the commercials are now widely ignored. Even the formats of important sports events have been altered to suit the convenience of Newspaper and Magazine. Games have been played at unusual hour to accommodate prime time publication. According to Benton and Benton, the U.S. Professional Golfere Association tournament was switched from it’s long tradition of man-to-man play to 27-hole medal competition due print media expansion usurped its crowds and income.
This simply means that over exposure can kill or kill sports stars.