The subject matter of this research is the effect of home background on performance of student in Computer Science in College of Education Staff School, Benin City. The main objective of the research work is to enable us know the effect of home background on performance of students in Computer Science in College of Education Staff School, Benin City. The research methodology, primary data was used. The data were presented and analyzed, information was gathered from questionnaires. It was discovered in the course of study that home background affects the performance of students. This is due to low educational qualification, soci-o-economic states and large families. It was recommended that the government should give aids to the lower class families by giving them grants such as bursary and scholarship awards.   




          The importance of education in the up-bringing of student cannot be over emphasized. It is a known fact that the children on students of today are the leaders of tomorrow. As matter of national priority, it is the fundamental responsibility of government to provide for the education of students, this will no doubt contribute to the overall growth and development and reduces the level of literacy to the barest minimum. In college of education staff school today, various subject like mathematics, English language, social studies, bible knowledge, elementary science, computer science are taught. These subject are reliant to our day to day development. These days emphasis is laid on both qualitative and quantitative education.

          In Nigeria society inequality of educational achievement has been one of the recent years. No government has ever thought of what the home can recall help in the performance of students in schools. Teachers have always been seen as a role model and a person that can perform miracle to influence the academic performances of student hence parents and government tend to be arranged into different social state. It is clear that our societies are theoretically classified into groups, person and their families are associated with different social classes. 

          There is the existence of three types of homes, the non-abundant, middle and abundant families. The position ones hold, the occupation which one engage in the society, the privileges and prestige receives all help to sharpen one’s style of life. The presence of adequate potential techniques for helping the child to understand his world or cope with complex situation may have permanent effects in his life and academic achievement. Broken homes can also affect the performance of students in computer science and may have permanent effect in his life and academic achievements. The use of instructional materials may also affect performance of students in college of education staff school. In Nigeria, however, most school don’t offer computer science the reason been that they are not mature to offer computer science or do not have material to teach the students. Their attitudes and behavaiour are quite was patterned by the time they enter into school. The child’s response to school is highly dependent on these patterned attitudes and behaviour with this, it become necessary to undertake a student, the problem on the academic performance in computer science of students in schools.   

          Over the two decades, sociologist have tried to identify the effect of home background on the performance of student in schools. Woodruff (1961) is of the view that the influence of home has on the child’s learning is a great importance to his life, his value and most of his habits and basic adjustments are established during the pre-school years. This state shows that home plays a vital role in educational development of a student and his performance in schools. This is so because the home provide for a student primary socialization and information educated and it goes a long way to help his performance in computer science in school.


In recent years, there has this assumption that the standard of education in Nigeria has fallen which manifest itself in poor performances of students. This has therefore led to a lot of argument of whom to blame, the teachers, the government, students, peer groups contributes to the student’s academic performance in computer science but the home into which the students is born nurtured and spends the most of his time is to be blame more because the home is the major contributor to the student performance in computer science in school. The research therefore coin at examining the effect of home background of student in school in College of Education Staff School, Benin City.  

The research questions that will be required for the purpose of this study include the following:

1.   Does home background affect the performance of student in computer science in College of Education Staff School?

2.   Does socio-economic status of parents affect the student performance in computer science in college of education staff school?

3.   Does the level of educational qualification of parents affect the student’s achievement in college of education staff school?

4.   Does the size of the family, type, structure affect student’s performances?

5.   Does the student from high and middle social classes achieve more than those from lower class?


The purpose of this study is to find out how home background affects the academic performance in computer science in college of education staff school, Benin City. It should be seen by those who could do something about it; educational planners, educational policy makers the universal basic education (UBE)  the government, parents, the college of education staff school management should do something that did not just evolve overnight, hence solution. It should be as elastic as its evolution.


This study will be of immense value to educational planners in designing school programme that are related to the family background of students such programme can help the disadvantaged students to catch up with their advantaged peers thereby improving the standard of education in the country. It is hoped that the findings of this study would help in identified the role of home background on students in schools. Every parents expect a good result from a child who attend school.

Student are successful in computer science when certain factors are put together ensuring that the student who attend schools, is well fed. Before he leaves the home the expected materials that will enhance learning at school is the students work regularly checked, does the parent over find time to check the child work, has the school facilities, equipments and materials that would aid teaching.

The government is not left out of it too. If the role of the home has been recognized in the nations education, therefore at the end of this project work, it is assumed that the government will assist parent guardian needs of the student wards.    



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The study is to investigate into the effect of home background on the performance f students in computer science in college of education staff school, Benin City. The possible solution to the problem the study is designed to discover computer science in college of education staff school.

But as a result of some limitation the researcher might encounter the following problem which is very common in the country. One of the problems arouse from human apathy or general lack of interest in research on the aprt of the public, people are generally unwilling to cooperate or volunteer information when it come to research matters, while many of the people cooperated. Some other were reluctant in giving or providing information relevant to the study for fear of being exposed.

Another problem is financial constraints, there are financial constraints that arises because a study of this nature would normally require a considerable length of time to enable researcher go round the local government.

Thirdly, lack of cooperation, uncooperative attitude of some people to give adequate answer correctly to the question in the questionnaires.




In the course of preparing this study, a number of terms were used for the purpose of clarity and avoidance of ambiguity. These terms are explained in the contest in which they were used.  

Home background: As used in this study, it means the environmental setting or home where the child was brought up and where his experience begins

Socio-Economic Status of Parents: This determines the level of general care and level of education children from high socio-economic home are likely to get good care and good education compared to children from low socio-economic homes.

Student Performance: The scores an individual obtains in a class test or examination base on his learning experience in schools.

Social Class: This is a level in the society made up of people who consider themselves as equal because of similarities of interest, same common background, same level of education, same occupation and income rate and same attitude towards social issues.

Educated Parents: It refers to parents that attended institutions of learning. It means parents that have undergone systematic training and instructions through formal education.

Uneducated parents: These are parents that never went to school for training or academic institutions.      





          Without empirical support, it is reasonable to argue that home has a considerable role on the performance of student in computer science in Colben Staff School. It is equally reasonable to mention that the family (home) plays a major role in hindering or enhancing this development. The teacher in the school setting has very little role to play compared to that of the home. According to Chill (1999), put it that large scales studies of the determination of educational achievement typically have found that school resource have little impact on achievement.

          Fraser (2001) also highlighted the fact that home environment is rather more close by connected with progress at school even more than intelligence quotient (IQ). He further indicated that factors in the home environments which were most influential and motivational. Ezewu (2005) also found out that emotional disturbance has a disrupting effect on a students performance he asserts that “a student who lives in an atmosphere full of tension and insecurity arising from the continuous struggle against poverty has a cause of failure”.

          Fraser (ed), home environment and the school, Nacgibon and Kee Press London (1998) Ezewu sociology of education Longman group London. The family (home) teaches the child a great deal both consciously and unconsciously during the first years. Later the school takes over part of the task but no teacher can influence the student as much as the parent does, because of the genetic factors. This influence does not only extend to transmission of culture but the student also tends to because the roles that he plays. The parental role that children experience are taken as very important factors which are  responsible for students development and intelligence.

          A lot of researchers have carried out researches in both developed and developing countries and its effect on their academic achievement. In relation to this topic, some possible factors have been found in the home background of children, given regard to individual differences in home background there is no doubt however, that its effect ones academic performance.   

1.   Social stratification

2.   Educational qualification of parents

3.   Family size

4.   Peer group influence

5.   Environmental influence

6.   Parental occupation

7.   Ethnic sub-culture.


          Social stratification is a systematic hierarchy of social position whose occupants are treated as superior or equal or inferior to one another. It refers to the unequal distribution of attributes, qualities or possession among members of the society. Coser (1998) opined that unequal rewards privilege in society in terms of services, rights, obligations, power and prestige. It refers to differences we find between groups in a society, differences of wealth, social prestige and power. In this context, those things are not equally enjoyed by the extent of power one has, are largely determined by the position one occupies n society. The background of a child has an effect on his academic performance in school. The world “background” means the details of persons family, education, experience etc. It may refer to natural or hereditary factors, the genetic characteristics within individuals which either inhabit or facilitate his ability to learn factors which limit the potential of an individual.

          The second meaning refers to the social background of an individual. The people around him and his general environment. The factors of social environment that may affect a child includes:


          The parents’ attitude towards their children schooling and the expectation they have for their children. Chapin (2001) pointed out that a child from higher socio-economic background has advantages over the child. In a higher class there may be a television sets, radio, picture, computer, reading and writing materials all of which help to prepare a child for learning in school. It is hypothesized that parents of higher upper classes of socio-economic have more positive attitudes towards their children’s schooling and have high expectations and standard for the children. The children are given high motivations for success in school. The parents ability to provide, say books and equipments for school combined with a positive attitude stimulate children to learn more. Furthermore, the upper class child eats a balance diet and this has good health. Again, the value he is exposed to at home are similar to what he finds in school and therefore he is able to adjust easily to school life. A feeling of belonging to a comfortable social school environment further helps home to show his best.

          Juliana (2004) opined that a child from a lower class is handicapped in that there are few facilities and amenities at home to prepare him for  school. He may suffer ill-health and even find it difficult to make satisfactory adjustment at school. Besides the disparities in home background, there are also the disparities when the two children of different classes start schooling. A child from the upper class starts with nursery school, kindergarten on reception. This is a contrast to the overwhelming numbers of children who start primary school without having gone to any form of infant schools, often they cannot even write their names, worst of all, they start with poorly qualified teachers in primary school. The medium of instruction-English is sometimes totally strange to the child with a disadvantage background pictures and illustration are things abstract and far removed from environment and even when they are available he cannot always appreciate and use them for his advancement. Many educators have documented their investigations on the effect of social stratification on academic performance of their children, they have tried to examine why students from some homes perform better than others.

          Professor Well (1995) was of the view that different family structure are likely to provide different ways for the needs of their children and to facilitate or inhabit different aspects of cognitive, emotional and motivational development. Individuals in the society as well as families are different and the determining factors of such differentiation are the educational level, occupation and income of the family. The differences which stems out from these are:

1.           People from high socio-economic status usually earn higher income.

2.           They also value school education more than those of low socio-economic status

Parents who are of in more lucrative job would have more or enough fund to expand on the basic needs and academic requirement of their children. Hobbs and Blanks (2002). Eduwen (2002) in his book titled “Human Learning” commented on the effect of malnutrition that if young people do not get enough balance diet or satisfactory diet his physical and mental growth is retarded. The brain is affected and he has a dull perception of his environment. Learning and acquisition of knowledge depend on whether the individuals needs is met. Then if the child does not eat well, it retards his mental thinking and attention at school. When a child has no decent dress, the unhappy child cannot produce his best performance in school.


          The educational qualification of parents is also important in students academic performance. Otite (2004) opined that there is great differences measured between educated and uneducated homes. This is variables to a very great extent reduce the performance of students in school because a child from uneducated homes will not receive any help and encouragement from his parents in terms of academic problems or even persuade the child to read. In some cases, his performance becomes low since there is nobody to check his books. Every child requires the assistance of the home to achieve his educational goals. The education which the family provides before the child enters an educational institution, assist him in fulfilling his need and in relieving his tension. He went further to say that socialization process of the homes is the process by which he gradually regards himself as an individual in the society. He also sees the family not only as an institution which permits some safe guarding of the child during its period of biological immaturity but also noted that his parents attitude help to condition their children attitude. A parent who shows complete disregard for education, literacy or any form of social advancement is bond to have some adverse effect upon his Childs educational progress. Ivon Morrish (1999). Morrish was also of the view that a child of lower socio class who have high intelligence potential may certainly suffer in comparison with a child of equal potential whose parents and home environment are higher class. He went further to say that well educated parents will wish their children to benefit as they have done from their good education and will provide necessary things as well as the necessary cash in order that this may be accomplished. Turner (2005) viewed that lack of adequate stimulation in the early year may not only adversely affect the child at that time but also may prevent him from benefiting fully from what the school has to offer once he has reached the age of entering into the educational system. But in his contribution to the background on the academic performance of students said that in a well to do household where there is small family or where the family size is small and the means adequate where the father is in his work and mother in a woman indignation and freedom for intellectual pursuit. The child will begin school life with the foundation of his education well laid. In this case, before the child goes to school, he has already undergone some elementary training in the hands of his educated parents.

          Dubeyt, at all findings showed that the kind of relationship the middle class children in the developed societies have with their parents is a very vital factor. It helps them to perform in the expected direction in school. The middle and the lower classes have some certain traits in common. In the first instance, middle class people tend to see their position better than that of the lower class and as such want to see their children maintain that position or improve on it. Their hope in education as a means of upward mobility is very solid. Although lower classes feel the same way about education, middle class is in better position to help their children through school, the importance of family training encourage independent thinking is more pronounced in middle class. The middle class parents have often has enough education to make useful suggestion contribution and realistic educational plans.

PEER GROUP INFLUENCE                        

          Peer group is an homogenous age group where child as a result of contract with children from his own acquires experiences essential for adult life. Musgrave (1999) through such contact, the child’s horizons is broadened, his perception widened and begins to turn from family view as things to a societal view, peers is equal in every respect, age-grade made up of persons roughly the same age. A variety of peer groups, such as informal play groups, gossip groups, whose members study together etc. peer groups are never too large but of equal age and social status and pursue some common interests. A peer group shelters and protects its members and given them psychological sustenance by meeting their emotional need of affection, understand and acceptance. It sometimes operates as a medium of communication peer group exerts a lot of influence or effects on the child performance in school. Infact it is termed the critical turning point in a child’s educational careers. Certain character develop tend to affect the behaviour of children in his group. Therefore, the schools are seen as a reference group, which should include the inculcation of desirable and acceptable modes of behaviour in the child. Children belongs to different social class. Those who belong to the group that thinks highly of themselves and aspires to have the best always portray a brilliant performance in their academic work while those who belong to the group who develops inferiority complex and feels that they can never aspire to have the best, perform poorly in academic works.

          The peer group has a stronger effect on the social behaviour and personality of his members. The school attended by a child on the other hand also exert great effect on the child’s life and his academic performance, his action is partly determined by the teachers in school. Peer group has crucial role to play in the socialization of members. Mushgrave is of the view that in family or school the child is in a state of sub-service, while the family is composed of heterogeneous age. The implication is that the things that cannot be comfortably taught in the family are learnt by children from the peers. Children knowledge about what is expected from them by their peers determines their attitudes and behaviour. It appears that children without a stable home or who are not logger heads with their parents are likely to be the children who will use the peer group as a source for values and behaviour.


          Area where the family lives in terms of whether the area is rural or urban setting. In Nigeria a number of the school in the rural areas lack necessary human and material resources and cannot be compare in standard to the ones in the city.

          However, there are few private schools in rural settings, which have boarding facilities. These schools are expensive and are filled with children from urban areas, most of the schools in the rural setting which are available to the children of the lower class families have no adequate staff and lacks some of the essential amenities. The end result is that the children who attend such schools are not fullest and school achievement is not the best. Some whose parents afford good quality schools are forced to go to public schools in the neighbourhood. Some of these schools are overcrowded and there is no meaningful pupil/teacher relationship because of large number of pupils. The children of the lower families with high inmate intelligence potential may suffer in these schools compared to their counter parts whose parents can afford the best of schools where all the necessary amenities and qualified staff are available. Children also go to good quality school stand a better chance of going to post secondary institution. They come better socially and are educationally advantaged.

          Empirical studies have revealed that the environment in which a child lives has much impact on his school work.

          Taiwo said in his book titled “Agencies of education”. The home should provide the opportunity for the child to choose his interest and ability by providing an environment intellectually stimulating to the child”. Thus, an environment that does not encourage or provide stimulation for kinds of skills taught in schools may have the effect of retarding the academic performance or growth of the child.

          Professor M.O.A  Durojaiye opined that a child is nor born a criminal, lazy or in adventurous, it is the environment that make him so.

          Blyth has a paper titled “some relationship between home and schools” have thrown some lights on the effect of home environment on educational progress. In his words, educational development depends largely with the grasp of ideas on the ability to understand them when expressed in speech or in unity and to communicate them to others.

          Finally, the work of professor F. Mushgrave quoted from P.W. Mushgrave “the sociology of education” supports the view that the real prime and lasting effect is the home environment and if there is deprivation were materials, spiritual, there will be some forms of deprivation in the child’s personality.


          One of the criteria for determining the socio-economic status of a students is the occupation of the parents. Parents who are in a better paid job, such as doctors, lawyers, engineers, civil servant, from the rank of high executive officers and above all, parents of high socio economic status tends to be more efficient in the provision of the necessary materials needed by their children in school than parents of low socio economic status and this affects the performance of students. Lovel K. (2005) opined on socio-economic position and academic, under achievement said “the low income earners are confronted with barriers in access to educational facilities” although lower class persons may be aware of the general importance assigned in the society, but the fact remains however, that may be as well as been aware of their limited opportunity to secure access to educational facilities. He said their favourablity of opportunity for its attainments. Where there is unimproved home background, the child is going to be class motivated at the earlier stage and this affects his academic performance.

          Juliana opined that the nature of occupation of parents tend to affect students educational performance.

          Lack of resources has great effect on the young people. It is not unusual that in a family that can scarcely afford foods, shelter and clothing the children are always forced by necessity to leave school early.

          Akinboye J. {2006} opined that the combination of others factors such as: parents interest, occupation, encouragement, home circumstance or quality of teaching can affect the academic performance by students under home disturbance, stress, tension and insecurity, criminating in the persistent struggle between family and poverty causes failure in individual’s academic performance in computer science.


          The parental interests and aspirations for   their children in terms of education is very important. Parents who show interest and visit their children’s school provide motivation for these children to do well or better.

          According to Douglas the children who are encouraged in their school work by their parents has an advantage both in the relatively high scores he makes in the tests and in the way they improve their scores between eight {8} and eleven {11} years.

          The parents are also able to provide the necessary school materials needed by the children to function effectively in the school. These parents not only stimulate their children but they also provide a conducive environment for the children to work at home. The parental aspirations is itself a product of their own educational, social, cultural and personal development and experiences. A parent who has no regard for education, literacy or any type of social advancement will have adverse effect on his children’s educational progress. It is the example of parents that is, what they really are, affects the children most. Parents who lack education and have no desire to learn or continue their education through life are demonstrating their lack of interest in education to their children.

          In some developing countries some lower class families produce as many children as possible and these children are to find themselves at an early age.

          According to Morrish, there is a positive correlation between the measured IQ of parents and child {+0.5}. Children in higher social strata will tend to have higher IQ than the children in the lower strata. Even though much can be done to promote the inmate potential of a child a good deal can also be done to frustrate and deepens it. There has been so much debate as to whether intelligence is fixed at birth or whether it can be acquired.


          The sub-culture of an ethnic group may have some effect on the academic performance of students because it may be instrumental in transmitting certain ideas and attitudes affecting motivation and levels of aspiration, personality traits that may bear on academic ability, linguistic, expressions and logical concepts which mediate the learning process.          In Africa, some facts points thus, speaking of Nigeria, Ofenberg has underlined the case with which the Ibo receive social change including modern education, new occupation and trade.

          Offenberg has tried to relate such attitude to the demography of Ibo land, the specific historical experience of the Ibo are last but not the least, certain aspects of their traditional value system. According to him, the latter may be summed up as follows an emphasis on individual achievement and initiative, a preference for egalitarism leadership, availability of alternative due to the incorporation of strangers in local societies.

Finally These value produce persons who are likely to strike for high income, status and political power through their own efforts and by the manipulation of newly introduced opportunities in the fields of education and economy.






          The research is designed or carried out to find out how home background affect students performance in computer science in College of Education Staff School Benin City.


          The population from which the subject of the study was drawn was college of education staff school in Benin City. The classes are so numerous but this study was designed to cover some selected secondary classes in college of education staff school, Benin City.


          A sample of one hundred (100) students were used twenty (20) students JSS I, Twenty (20) students JSS 2, Twenty (20) students JSS 3, Twenty (20) students SSS 1, Twenty (20) students SSS 2.  


The quota sampling techniques was adopted representatives sample of twenty (20) students was selected from the population of each schools in JSS one to three (1-3). That is equal number of students from JSS 1-3 in college of education staff school, Benin City.


          The questionnaire will be the instrument use in this research. The questionnaire provided was to collect information about academic performance of student in computer science in college of education staff school, Benin City.


          The questionnaires was personally designed by the researcher and submitted to the supervisor for necessary correction, after the correction it was printed out for distribution. This gave the questionnaires the face validity before it administered.


          The researches asked for the permission of the school authority, and explained to the students the purpose of the questionnaires and it was distributed to the students in their classes. The students filled the questionnaires and returned it immediately.


          The simple percentage method was used to carefully analyzed the data collected from the respondents.





          This chapter shows analysis of data collected from the fields of research, the results obtained will enable the researcher to know whether the home background affects student staff school, for the collection of information the researcher used the questionnaires method.

A total of one hundred (100) questionnaires were distributed to the student and all were returned. The method of analysis is the simple percentage based on the response of the student.


The data were examined, tabulated and analyzed according to the research questions. The findings were based on the responses given by the respondents through the questionnaires.

Question 1: Does your home background affect your performance in computer science in school?  


No of Respondents

Percentage (%)










          This table shows that 73% of the respondents agreed that their home background affect their performance in computer science in school while 27% of the respondents disagreed that their home background don’t affect their academic performance in school.

Question 2: Student from homes are less motivated .


No of Respondents

Percentage (%)










          This table shows that 90% of the respondents agreed pupils from poor home are les motivated while 10% of the respondents disagreed that student from poor home are less motivated.

Question 3: Do your parents encourage your study at home?


No of Respondents

Percentage (%)










          This table show that 35% of the respondents agreed that their parents encourage their study at home while 65% disagreed that their parents do not encourage their student at home.

Question 4: Do you have time to read your book at home?


No of Respondents

Percentage (%)










          This table shows that 43% of the respondents agreed that they read their books at home while 57% disagreed that they do not have time to read their books at home.

Question 5: Do parents supervise your academic activities.


No of Respondents

Percentage (%)






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