TABLE OF CONTENT
Chapter One: Introduction
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Research Questions
1.4 Objectives of Study
1.5 significance of the study
1.6 Scope of the Study
1.7 Limitation of the Study
Chapter Two: Literature Review and Theoretical Framework
2.1 Definition of Investigative Journalism
2.1.1 Historical Background of Investigative Journalism
2.1.2 Features of Investigative Journalism
2.1.3 The importance of Investigative Journalism
2.1.4 The functions of Investigative Journalism
2.1.5 Formation of Investigative Journalism
2.1.6 Measurement of Investigative Journalism
2.3 Definition of freedom of information
2.3.1 Origin of the freedom of information Bill in Nigeria
2.3.2 Origin of the Freedom of Information Bill in the world
2.3.3 The importance the Freedom of information Bill
2.3.4 Salient features of the Freedom of information Act
2.4 Theoretical Framework
2.4.1 Social Responsibility Theory
2.4.2 Agenda Setting Theory
Chapter Three: Research Methodology
3.1 Research design
3.1.1 Survey method
3.2 Research Questions
3.3 Population of Study
3.4 Sampling size
3.5 Sampling Procedure
3.6 Instrument of Data collection
3.9 Method of Data Analysis
Chapter Four: Data Analysis And Discussion of Findings
4.1Research Question One
4.2 Research Question two
4.3 Research Question three
Chapter Five: Summery, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1.1 Major Findings
5.4 Suggestion for futher Reading
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Investigative journalism practice in any country is a phenomenon with a stunning transformational positive impact. In Nigeria, there are claims that it is in rare practice, allowing for high level of corrupt practices in government.
Investigative journalism is finding, reporting and presenting news which other people try to hide from the public. It is very similar to standard news reporting, except that the people at the centre of the story will usually not help you and may even try to stop you doing the onerous job. (http://www.thenewsmanual.net/Manuals%20Volume%202/volume2_39.htm. Accessed 20th Feb. 2014)
University of Missouri journalism professor, Steve Weinberg, defined investigative journalism as "Reporting, through one's own initiative and work product, matters of importance to readers, viewers, or listeners”. In many cases, the subjects of the reporting wish the matters under scrutiny to remain undisclosed. There are currently university departments for teaching investigative journalism. Conferences are conducted presenting peer reviewed research into investigative journalism.
British media theorist, Hugo de Burgh, (2000) states that: "An investigative journalist is a man or woman whose profession it is to discover the truth and to identify lapses from it in whatever media may be available. The act of doing this generally is called
investigative journalism and is distinct from apparently similar work done by police, lawyers, auditors, and regulatory bodies in that it is not limited as to target, not legally founded and closely connected to publicity."
However, Ugwu, (2010) observes that investigative journalism in a developing nation like Nigeria is threatened with numerous challenges which are almost crippling its proper practice, its prospects notwithstanding.
Investigative journalism is a special domain in journalism practice. Either in print journalism or in broadcast journalism, the same principle exists but with slight different approaches in carrying out the process of producing the results of the investigation. In some past issues of two notable Nigerian magazines, very reliable investigations had been carried out by their investigative reporters and had publish such findings without threats of libel. An example of this kind of news story, an investigative story, could be found in TELL Magazine (cover story) December 24, 2001 edition. In this edition, an exclusive interview was held by the magazine with the then Ondo state governor in the south western part of Nigeria. It was alleged that, the governor "had a dirty deal" in connection with some of the state's property in Lagos. The interview was recorded on tape and given a prominent front page headline: "A Governor's Dirty Deal".The governor was given an opportunity to reply to the story in the same edition. He said he was misled by his adviser. "I was misled... I am not a thief," he said. (Duyile 2011:196-7)
Investigative reporting is all about newsgathering through journalistic Investigative techniques to obtain reliable, undisputable, factual, and unbiased account of occurrences. Such findings of inquiries by professional journalists, when painstakingly done and based on good principles of journalism and on ethics of journalism, are usually incontrovertible. Such Investigative reporting is usually based on popular media principle, "the society and all there in, has the right to know". (Duyile2011:196-7)
1.2 Statement of Problem
Investigative journalism practice in Nigerian is faced with enormous challenges which constitute great threat to the benefits that is incurred from this major aspect of the journalism profession.
An expert has observed that investigative journalism has been in the decline since its haydays in the 1970s, and many investigations are now more concerned with entertainment than information (Harcup,2009:110). However, the practice of investigative journalism in Nigeria is inadequate and ineffective. There are several problems that stand as constraints, even though it has bright prospects.
As accurately noted by a journalism don, Duyile (2011:197), "investigative news stories are becoming the exclusive preserve of News Magazine. This trend in Nigeria journalism is not good for the upwards development of the profession. News Magazines in Nigeria are fewer than daily and weekly newspapers.
You can count on your fingertips the existing and flourishing News Magazines published in Nigeria in the late 1980s up to year 2010: They were few. The well-read and well-circulated ones among them were:
" The News" which was regarded as "a fearless investigative news magazine".
"TELL", another leading Nigerian news magazine also led the way in several investigative reports, which touched the nation's heart.
"Citizen" a northern Nigeria based magazine published in Kaduna, Kaduna state in the 1990s but collapsed on its way to national acceptance. It made some striking attempts at investigative journalism, which made it popular before it finally collapse.
"African Concord" was another famous magazine for its type of investigative stories, but like its defunct colleagues, it disappeared from the news industry before it reached its peak. Many news magazines have risen and fallen in the past decades."
Frequently, journalists publish incomplete truth, misleading stories and outright falsehood without concrete investigation, thereby making political propaganda, rumours, unsubstantiated claims, publicity, and emotions the bedrock of information gathering. These hazards have provoked this study of investigative journalism in Nigeria.
1.4 Objectives of Study
The study sought to:
Determine how the FOI law have aided investigative journalism so far in south western Nigeria
Investigate how the interest of journalists can be steered towards investigative journalism
Determine the roles of the populace/public in achieving effective practice of investigative journalism
1.3 Research questions
This study was guided by the following research questions:
How has the FOI law aided investigative journalism so far in Nigeria? (what is the level of investigative Journalism practice since the enactment of the law?)
How can the interest of journalists be steered towards investigative journalism?
What are the roles of the populace/public in achieving effective practice of investigative journalism?
1.5 Significant of study
The findings of this research would enable journalists to appreciate their collective challenges in the field of investigative journalism. It would also bring the sense of responsibility to the public, towards an effective practice of investigative journalism. The study would serve as a platform for further empirical study on the topic under investigation.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study is purely concerned with the practice of investigative journalism in Nigeria, using Oyo State journalists as a case.
Due to time and finance constraints, the study focused only on the Journalists in Oyo state, which include Nigerian Tribune, ImalefalafiaOke Ado, Ibadan and the correspondent chapel Mokola round about, behind group medical hospital respectively.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
The researcher encountered some limitations during the process of carrying out the research work which was the inability of respondents to fill the questionnaire which was the inability of the respondents to fill the questionnaire which made the researcher to practically beg them before they consented, was a major constraint to the research work.
Also, lack of research materials for the research work was another constraint faced by the research because very few people have worked on investigative journalism and the FOI bill. Moreover, finance was another difficulty faced by the researcher in the course of this work. The researcher had to travel a long distance to collect concrete data for the interview and some people also refused to give the researcher audience to be interviewed when the researcher wanted to get their own opinion based on investigative journalism.
INVESTIGATIVE JOURNALISM PRACTICE AMONG JOURNALISTS IN SOUTH WESTERN NIGERIA.