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REFINING OF VEGETABLE OIL WITH ENUGU COAL

  • Type:Project
  • Pages:80
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Chemical Engineering Project Topics & Materials)
ABSTRACT
This project was carried out using acid activated coal from Enugu coal and the production of ve4getablew oil was monitored using spectrophotometer to measure the absorbance. It was also perform to check the suitability of activated Enugu coal as a bleaching agent for palm oil.
The Enugu coal samples were collected, size reduced, carbonized and activated with acid (phosphoric Acid) before being used for the bleaching process. The bleaching process lasted for 40minutes and it was absorbed that activated coal is a poor absorber of palm oil.
From the result obtained, it was observed t6hat at different temperature rang of 120oc, 150oc and 180oc of 10g of activated coal mixed with 100ml of palm oil, that the co lour absorbance were 1.65, 1.2 and 0.4 respectively. The optimum amount of 10g at bleaching temperatur4e of 180ocfound to be the best for better bleaching.
It was observed that as the temperature increase, the pe4rcentage colour reduction of the oil increase. Beside, it was observed that the smaller the particle size of the activated coal samples, the higher their effect on the oil and the higher the percentage colour reduction. 

TABLE OF CONTENT
TITLE PAGE
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
DEDICATION 
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
ABSTRACT
TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE
1.1 INTRODUCTION
1.2 SCOPE/OBJECTIVE OF PROJECT

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 HISTORY OF PALM OIL
2.1 PROCESSING OF PALM OIL
2.2 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PALM OIL
2.2.1 CAROTENES
2.2.2 FATTY ACIDS
2.2.3 PHOSPHOLIPIDS (PHOSPHATIDES)
2.2.4 GUMS
2.3 CHARACTERISTICS OF PALM OIL
2.3.1 SPOILAGE FACTORS OF PALM OIL
2.3.2 PREVE4NRTIVE MEASURES
2.4 REFINING OF CRUDE PALM OIL
2.4.1 DEGUMMING
2.4.2 NEUTRALISATION
2.4.3 BLEACHING 
2.4.4 BLEACHABILITY OF PALM OIL
2.4.5 CHEMICAL BLEACHING
2.4.6 AERATION BLEACHYING 
2.4.7 BLEACHING BY ADSORPTION
2.5.0 ADSORPTION
2.5.1 TYPES OF ADSORPTION
2.52 APPLI8CATION OF ADSORPTION PROCESS
2.53 NATURE OF ADSORBENT
2.5.4 STRUCTURE OF ADSORBENT
2.5.5 ADSORPTION EQUIPMENT
2.6 COAL AS AN ADSORBENT
2.6.1 MECHANISM OF COAL FORMATION
2.7 TYPES OF COAL AND ITS PROPERTIES
2.7.1 COAL RANK AND CLASSIFICATION BY RANK
2.7.2 CLASSIFICATION OF COAL
2.7.3 PROPERTIES OF COAL COMMONLY 
USED IN CLASSIFICATION
2.7.4 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OFT COAL
2.7.5 CAKING ANDR COKING PROPERTIES
2.76 CALORIFIC VALUE
2.77 ACTIVATED CARBON 
2.78 CHEMICAL PROPERTIESOF COAL
2.79 COAL CARBONIZATION
2.80 ADSORPTION PARAMETERS OF ACTIVATED CARBON

CHAPTER THREE
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
3.10 MATERIAL TREATEMENT 
3.11 CARBONIZATION OF COAL
3.12 COAL ACTIVATED
3.13 PERCENTAGE APPEARENT POPOSITY OF ACTIVATED COLA
3.34 TREATMENT OF PALM OIL
3.15 BLEACHING OPERATTION
3.16 EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON BLEACHING 
3.17 EFFECT OF PARTICLE SWIZE ON BLEACHING
3.18 EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF BLEACHING OIL 
TEST FOR SPECIFIC GRAVITY
TEST FOR ACID VALUE
TEST FOR SAPONIFICATION VALUE
TEST FOR IODINE VALUE
 
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 EXPERIMENNTAL RESULT
4.1 EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON BLEACHING
     SPECIFIC GRAVITY VALUE
    ACID VALUE
     SAPONIFICATION VALUE
      IODINE VALUE

CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 DISCUSSION
5.2 CONCLUTION/RECOMMENDATION

REFINING OF VEGETABLE OIL WITH ENUGU COAL

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Details

Type Project
Department Chemical Engineering
Project ID CNG0277
Price ₦3,000 ($20)
No of Pages 80 Pages
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Chemical Engineering
    Project ID CNG0277
    Price ₦3,000 ($20)
    No of Pages 80 Pages
    Format Microsoft Word

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