BACTERIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF PALM WINE SOLD AT UDI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

(Science Lab Technology)

BACTERIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF PALM WINE SOLD AT UDI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

ABSTRACT

This work shows how to identify the various microorganism in palm wine and how to isolate the pathogenic organism in palm wine vie Nkwuenu and the attributes were identification of bacteria and yeast. All showed the spoilage rate between the erect stem and fallen stem palm wine as show in table 4.4 and 4.5. Also the type of microorganism present varies in Nkwuenu, the result shows the growth of streptococcus, lactobacillus and leuconostoc, the result shows the growth of micrococcus, lactobacillus and baccilus in it. The result shows the growth of sarcina and acetobacter, saccharomyces and candida were common in Nkwuenu for yeast identification at 6 hourly interval for 3 days. Also the above observation shows that fermentation goes on in the market palm wine varieties even during storage. The microscopic and gram reaction of the microbes were also obtained, the shape of the cell when viewed in a microscope is cocci in chain and in pair which is streptococcus and its gram reaction is positive. It was noted that the sources of this microbes is contaminated from tapers knife, the bamboo, funnel, air the bark of the palm tree and the remaining palm in the calabash, which are used to tap the palm wine  from palm tree.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

          CHAPTER ONE

1.0    Introduction                                                       

1.1        Background of the study                                      

1.2        Statement of problem                                 

1.3        Objectives of study                                             

1.4        Hypothesis                                                

1.5        Significance of the study                                      

1.6        Limitation of the study                                         

CHAPTER TWO

2.0    Literature Review                                               

2.1    Biology of the palm tree                                              

2.2    Palm wine tapping technology                              

2.3    Microbiology of palm wine                            

2.4    The biochemistry of palm wine                     

2.5    Preservation of palm wine                            

2.6    Socio economic importance of the palm         

          CHAPTER THREE 

3.0    Material and method                                   

3.1    Material                                                            

3.1.1 Equipment/glass waves                                       

3.1.2 Reagent                                                            

3.1.3 Media                                                               

3.2.1 Preparation of media                                  

3.2.2 Collection of Sample                                   

3.2.3 Sample Processing                                              

3.2.4 Inoculation Media                                               

3.2.5 Isolation of bacteria                                            

3.2.6 Identification and characterization of isolated

organization organism                                 

3.2.7 Biochemical test                                         

3.2.8 Sensitivity test                                           

          CHAPTER FOUR

4.0    Result                                                               

          CHAPTER FIVE

5.0    Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation  

5.1    Discussion                                                 

5.2    Conclusion                                                 

5.3    Recommendation                                               

        Reference                                                 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1:     Nutritional content  of palm wine           

Table 2:     Composition of palm sap                              

Table 3:     Variation of palm wine composition with increase in fermentation                               

Table 4:     Identification of some yeast present      

Table 5:     Identification of some bacterial present  

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

        Palm wine is an alcoholic beverage that is very popular among Africans and Nigeria in particular. It is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of sugar and other fermentable materials in palm sap. The major sources of palm wine in Nigeria are eraesis guineensis thesis and raphia palm raphia hooken (Okafor, 1987).

        Palm wine is usually a whitish sugary liquid, which is effervescent because the microbes causing the fermentation are alive when it is consumed. Among the land plants, the palm is very distinguished. It has a columar stem whose height range is usually between 30-50 feet (9 – 15 meters) high. The stem is crowned with giant leaves which are entire and folder fan at first, but usually the blade splits into segments and in some genera, the segments develop into independent leaves lets the inflorescence is a spike or much branched at first usually enveloped in one  or more conspicuous sheathing breaks. It manifests itself in more than two thousand species and several hundred of genera.

        Elaesis guineensis is a sources of palm kernels, palm oil, palm wine and brooms in rural areas of southern Nigeria and west African in general. Palm are found in the meadows, stepper, and deserts on the mountains and all though the tropical and sub tropical forests of West Africa (faparsus, 1973).      

        Okafor, (1977) reported the following genera of bacteria in palm wine such as lactobacillus, savina, corynbacterium, leuconostoc, and yeast so far reported as being present included saccharomyces pasturianius, s. ellipsordeus, s. cerevisae, s. markie etc. it is noted that the sources of this micerboes is from when the palm sap enter the calabash, it ferments spontaneously by the activities of their microbes (yeast and bacteria) which find their way into the palm sap from old palm wine crust present in the calabash, other sources of these microbes includes the tapper’s Knife, the Bamboo, funnel through which the sap drips, the air and bark of male inflorescence.

1.2    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

        Bacteria are found in palm wine some of this bacteria are lactobacillus, streptococcus, candida, spp, pichia spp etc in different palm wine shops at Udi Local Government  Area of Enugu state. For palm wine sellers, palm wine are kept uncovered from the time they finish selling it. Such exposure can allow the growth of microorganism in the palm wine. When it is  been consumed this can cause vomiting, fever, stomach problem etc.

        Thus, this problem lies at the unhygienic and poor preservation of the palm wine tapers and dealers.

1.3    OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

Aim: Bacteriological examination of palm wine

  1.  To identify the various microorganisms in palm wine
  2. To isolate the pathogenic organisms.

1.4   HYPOTHESIS

H0:    The microbes found in palm wine are only yeast and bacteria.

H1:    The microbes found in palm wine are not only yeast and bacteria.

1.5    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

        This is to bring to the knowledge of the general public that palm wine contains microbes; these microbes can be from the bamboo, funnel, and tapers knife etc that is mostly common when they are stored at low temperature.

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