DETERMINATION OF CHLORINE CONTENT IN WATER FROM AJALLI SOURCE

(Science Lab Technology)

DETERMINATION OF CHLORINE CONTENT IN WATER  FROM AJALLI SOURCE

ABSTRACT

Determination of the chlorine content in water from Ajali sources was carried out in the laboratory.  Chlorination has been a method for the treatment of drinking water and chlorine being an excellent disinfectant is the sole element for this practice.  The world health organization (WHO) and National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) set out standard chlorine adequate for drinking water which is given as 200mg/l.  This research work is based on the determination of chlorine content in raw Ajali water, treated reservoir water and Tap water. For each five samples were collected and analyzed using Mohr Method and the result for the average chlorine contents are 105.79mg/l for the Ajali raw mater, 129.70mg/l for reservoir and tap water is 178.63mg/l. In all, the results show that they correspond to the WHO/NAFDAC standard for chlorine content in drinking water.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTIION                                             

1.1                        Background of the study                                              

1.2                        Statement of the problem                    

1.3                        Aims of the study                                               

1.4                        Significance of the study                                              

1.5                        Scope of the study                                             

CHAPTER TWO

2.0        LITERATURE REVIEW                                          

2.1            Water treatment                                                      

2.2            Concept if Drinking  water chlorination         

2.3        Fact About Disinfection chemistry                  

2.4    water chlorination chemistry                        

2.5   Draw back of water Disinfection                    

2.6    Other method of water Disinfectants              

2.7    Comparison of water Disinfectants                 

2.6    Amperometric Titration Methods                   

CHAPTER THREE

3.0        Material and Method                                   

3.1    Material                                                            

3.2    Sample Collection                                               

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0        Result       

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0        Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation  

5.1    Discussion                                                 

5.2    Conclusion                                                 

5.3    Recommendation                                               

        References                                                        

Appendix                                                           

Calculation                                                

CHAPTER ONE

1.0        INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background of the study

`      Chlorine is a greenish-yellow gas that dissolves easily in water.  It has a pungent, noxious colour that some people can perceive smell at concentrations above 0.3 part permillion.  Chlorine is an excellent disinfectant commonly added to drinking water supplies to kill harmful micro-organism.  Chlorine is not  only an effective disinfectant but it also reacts with ammoniamiron and other metal  s and  some organic compounds to improve overall water quality (white, 2000).

        In parts of the world when chlorine is not added to drinking water, thousands of people die each day from waterbone disease like typhoid and cholera according to (Darnail 1999).  However, the addition of chlorine in water has its limitations but its dangers, are relatively shortlived compared to the dangers of most other highly poisonous substances.  Rideal et al, (2005) suggests that  this is because chlorine reacts quickly with other substance in after (and  forms combined chlorine)  or escapes  as a gas into the atmosphere.  The free chlorine test measures only the amount of free or dissolved chlorine in water, but the total chlorine test measures both free and combined of chlorine.

        According to Richardson et al (2007), if the water contains a lot of decaying  materials, free chlorine can combine with them to form disinfection –by- products like  tribhalomethanes.  Though there is a limit to the use of chlorine as negative results are possible with the addition of too odour in water are often enhanced.

        Fair et al, (2000) states that less than one half (0.5mg/L) of free chlorine is needed to kill bacterial without causing water to smell or taste unpleasant. Most people cannot detect the presence of chlorine on water  amount (1.0mg/l).  although 1.0mg/l chlorine in water is not harmful to people, it does cause problems to fish and other aquatic animals when they are expose to it over along period of time.  It is very important for  water suppliers to monitor closely the level of chlorine present in the water (Hodges 1997).

RISK OF WATERBORNE DISEASE

        Where adequate water treatment is not readily available, the impact on public health can be devastating (White, 2002), would.  Worldwide, about 1.2 billion people lack access to safe drinking water and twice that number may have adequate sanitation (Christian et al, 2001).  As a result the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 3.4 million people mostly children die, every year from water related diseases.  Rideal etal (2005). Even where treatment is widely practiced constant vigilance is required to guard against  waterborne disease outbreaks.

        Well known pathogens such as E coli are easily controlled with  chlorination but  can cause deadly outbreak give condition if inadequate  or disinfection (Richardson, et al 2007).  Some emerging pathogens like osporiolianare resistance to chlorination and can appear even in high quality water supplies.  Cryptosporidium was the cause of the longest reported drink water in United state (Craun et al, 2002).  The new regulation from U.S Environmental Protection Agency will require water system to monitor cryptosporidium and adopt a range of treatment options based on source water cryptosporidium concentrations.  Most water systems are expected to meet EPA  requirement while continuing to use chlorination.

1.2       STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

There has been high prevalence of water borne disease in
Enugu metropolis judging from the hospital statistics hence the need to know if the cause has been from the method of water treatment employed in the purification of drinking water supplied to the municipality.

1.3       AIMS  OF THE STUDY

-              To determine the chlorine content to water from Ajalli water source.

-              To compare the chlorine content in he drinking water in Enugu metropolis with  World Health Organization standard.

-              The study will also evaluate the effect of bad water chlorination and the harms of indisinfecter drinking water.

1.4       SIGNIFICANCES OF THESTUDY

This research work is meant to elucidate the actual concentration of chlorine in Enugu drinking water  and to make known the processes or steps taken in the treatment of the water.  Also to establish whether some prevalent disease could be traced to the way drinking water in Enugu is treated.

1.5  SCOPE OF THE STUDY

          This research work is limited to the determination of the chlorine content in raw Ajalli water source the treatment of water and the tap water within Enugu.

  TERMS AND CONDITIONS

Using our service is LEGAL and IS NOT prohibited by any university/college policies

You are allowed to use the original model papers you will receive in the following ways:

1. As a source for additional understanding of the subject

2. As a source for ideas for your own research (if properly referenced)

3. For PROPER paraphrasing (see your university definition of plagiarism and acceptable paraphrase)

4. Direct citing (if referenced properly)

Thank you so much for your respect to the authors copyright.

For more project materials

Log on to www.grossarchive.com

Or call

+2348130686500

+2348093423853

 

500
Leave a comment...