(Science Lab Technology)



Eutrophication and water pollution is the increase in the rate of supply of organic matter in an ecosystem.  It deals with the acquiring of water body to a high concentration of nutrient especially phosphate and nitrate that promote excessive growth of algae.  Eutrophication causes pollution in water.  It is chemical, physical or biological change in the quality of water that has a harmful effect on anything that drinks or uses it. Eutrophication can be natural or artificial addition of nutrient to the water bodies. When it is natural, it’s caused by natural run-off nutrient from the soil while cultural is caused by fertilizer runoff, agricultural uses. Eutrophication and water pollution can be controlled in some ways like maintaining the domestic sewage, making use of septic tanks, maintaining industrial waste water using chemical and physical treatment like coagulation,

flocculation and sedimentation.



1.1 Introduction


Types of Eutrophication and Water Pollution                            

2.1 Natural Eutrophication                                                            

2.2 Cultural Eutrophication                                                                       

2.3 Point and Non Point Sources                                                

2.4   Transboundary Water Pollution                                          

2.5   Ground Water Pollution                                                                    

2.6   Microbial Water Pollution                                                      

2,7  Oxygen Depletion                                                                               


3.0 Control of Eutrophication  and Water Pollution                  

3.1 Maintaining Domestic Sewage Treatment                           

3.2 Maintaining Industrial Waste Water Treatment                   

3.3 Point Sources Waste Water Treatment                                

3.4 Urban –runoff (Storm Water)                                                  


4.0 Disadvantages of Eutrophication and Water Pollution     


5.0 Conclusion                                                                                            



1.0       Introduction

According to Nixon 1995, Eutrophication is the increase in the rate of supply of organic matter in an ecosystem.  It can also be the process by which a body of water acquires a high concentration of nutrient especially phosphate and nitrate these typically promote excessive growth of algae.  As the algae die and decompose, high level of organic matter and the decomposing organisms such as fish (Nixon 1995).

            Artebjerg, et al (1993) says, Eutrophicatin is a natural slow aging process for a water body, but human activity greatly speeds up the process.

            Eutrophication refers as a natural or artificial addition of nutrient to bodies of water and to the effect of the added nutrients, when the effects are undesirable, eutrophication may be considered as a form of pollution (Rodhe, 1969).

            “Lawarenee and Jackson (1998)” said that eutrophication may occur naturally but can also be the result of human activity like cultural eutrophication from fertilizer runoff and sewage discharge and its particular, evident in slow-moving rivers and shallow lakes, increased sediment disposition can eventually raise the level of the lakes or river bed, allowing land plant to colonized the edge and eventually converting the area of dry land (Lawrence and Jackson 1998).

            Entrophics is known to be soils water and habitat that are high nutrients in aquatic system, associated with wide swings is dissolved oxygen concentration and frequent algal bloom (Rodhe,1969).

            Water pollution is a major global problem which requires on going evaluation and revision of water resources policy at all levels (international down to individual aquifer and wells).  It has been suggested that it is the leading world wide cause of death and disease and that it accounts for the death of more than 14,000 people daily (Hochanadel, 2010).

            Europhication is recognized as a water pollution problem in different countries in the world like European and North American lakes and reservoirs in the mid-20th century. Since then it has becomes more wide spread. Survey showed that 54% of lakes in Asia are eutrophics, in Europe 50%, in North America 48%, in South America 41% and in Africa 28% (Rodhe,1969).



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