PRODUCTION OF MIXED SPICES USING CURRY LEAF (OCIMUM BASILLICUM) AND (OCIMUM GRATTISSIUM)

(Science Lab Technology)

PRODUCTION OF MIXED SPICES USING

CURRY LEAF (OCIMUM BASILLICUM) AND

(OCIMUM GRATTISSIUM)

ABSTRACT

The project was based on production of mixed spices using scent leaf and curry leaf. This shows the characteristics of the spices in respect of Aroma, colour and texture. The research work determines the effect of drying temperature as well as the environment on the characteristics properties of the spices the best ratio(s) of preparing a mixed spices of (ocimum grattisium and ocimum Basillicum) (40:60) of sample k is spelt out in this work on general acceptability of sample k strike a balance while unitary produce (100: 0 of sample A and 0:100 of sample G) were also accepted. .       The produce gained general acceptability of Aroma (81%), colour (86%) and texture (91%). It is deducted from this work that the best mixing proportion is (40;60) of ocimum grattissium and ocimum Basillicum respectively.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE: Introduction

1.1        Spices                                                              

1.2        Usefulness                                                 

1.3        Aims of the Study                                               

1.4        Objectives of the Study                                       

CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review

2.1    Ocimium Basilliunm and Ocimum Grattisium Plant    

2.2    The Mixed Spices                                       

2.3    Nutritional Value                                         

2.3.1Nutritional Composition of Ocimum Specie (Curry Leaf and Scent Leaf)                                

2.4    Medicinal Value                                          

2.5    Ocimum Specie in Food                                       

CHAPTER THREE: Materials and Method

3.1    Sources of Raw Materials                             

3.2    Sample Preparation                                            

3.3    Analyses                                                           

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1    Results                                                      

4.2    Discussions                                        

CHAPTER FIVE

Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1    Conclusion                                         

5.2    Recommendations                                      

Appendix I

Appendix II

Appendix III

References

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       SPICES

WHAT IS SPICE?

        Spice is a dried fruit, seed, root, bark or vegetative substances primarily used for flavoring, colouring or preserving food. Sometimes a spice is used to hide other flavours.          Spices can also be a sort of substances (e.g ginger, nutmerg, cinnamon, cloves etc), used to flavor food.

        The universal use of spices to flavor food implies its attributes to impact as well as improve unappetizing and unpalatable food. Though such food may be attractive to look at or balance nutritionally, without good aroma and taste, the essential reflexes require and digestive processes may not be activated (health, 1978). Eating of such will not be pleasurable or fully consummated. The properties and characteristics of spices have been summarized by Johnson and Peterson (1774) as the ability to give flavor to a flavourless base to impact a different character to the basic product. Boost intrinsic flavours which would otherwise be too weak and disguise objectionable intrinsic flavor.

        Spices are distinguished from herbs which are part of leafy greens plants also used for flavouring or as garnish.

        Many spices have antimicrobial properties. This may explain why spices are more commonly used in warmer climate, which have more infections disease and why use of spices is especially prominent in meat which is susceptible to spoiling.

        A spice may have an extra use, usually medicinal, religion ritual, cosmetics or perfume production or as a vegetable. For example, turmeric roots are consumed as a vegetable and garlic as an antibiotic.

        Curry leaf and scent leaf are known as African basil or wild basil, these spices belong to plantae kingdom, they are angiosperms and the order is lamiales in the family of lamiaceae genus ocimum specie. The spices originated from hawau where they serve as a major part of the food due to reasons like flavouring agents in foods, preservatives, medicinal value as well as appetizing agent in foods.

        Ocimum specie comprises of ocimum basillium and ocimum grattisium among others. Ocim,um bassilium (curry leaf) is known to be an important seasoning leaf in the Igbo land. It is often used in cooking of foods like ice, yam portage, stew etc. it is been used with ocimum grattisium (scent leaf) to give a more pronounced flavor and aroma to the food. These leaves can be pluralized. The effect of the drying temperature (if not controlled, the preparation or production process as well as the level of exposure to air when chopped are of paramount importance in the production of the leaves. These spices serve based on the type of food they are used for.

        The botanical name of these spices are ocimum basillicum (curry leaf) and ocimum grattisium (scent leaf/nchuanwu).

1.2    USES/USEFULNESS

Ocimum basilicum (curry leaf) is one of the ingredients of Indian curries, cooked vegetables, salads, chutneys and spices.    

Curry leaves are useful in all kinds of medical treatment and cooking methods as well. Curry leaf improve functioning of the stomach and small intestine and help to carryout their actions. They improve the quality of digestion.

Ocimum grattisium (nchuanwu) is extensively used through west Africa as a febrifuge, anti-convulsant. The crushed leaf juice is used in the treatment of convulsion, stomach pain and catarrh. oil from the leaves have been found to posses antseptic, anti bacterial and anti fungal activities (C.N Ezekwesili et all, 2004). In the coastal area of Nigeria, the plant is used in the treatment of epilepsy (Osifom, 1992) high fever (oliver, 1980) and diarrhea (oliver, 1980 and sofowara, 1993).

These spices require a well drained of fertile loamy soil. They grow to height of 2cm – 3cm and require moderate rainfall and sundry, most often propagated in the months of April and may using the seedlings with a planting space of 20cm2 to 30cm per stand on flat.

The maturity time is not determined since its vegetative can be used in preparing food as early as they grow out but the scent and aroma is more pronounced when the leaves grow older (Ugochukwu O.C 1999).

Spices comprise of Allium sativium (Ginger), capsicum specie (peppe) to mention but a few. These spices are made up of food components like, mineral, vitamins and water, though they can be found to contain 66.3% moisture (water), 1.0% fat, 6.1 protein, 6.1% carbohydrate, 6.4% crude fibre 4.2% mineral, 814mg of calcium, 600mg phosphorus, 3.1mg of iron, 600mg of carotene (vitaimin A) and 4mg/100g vitamin c.

Ocimum basillium  and ocimum grattisium can be identified by their leaves i.e  dark green, aromatic and slightly bitter in taste. Their roots is of a fibrous specie and its height is considerable production of mixed spices depend on the productivity, this in turn show the appetizing values of such food samples (spices). In respect to food savory, taste and aroma.

The production of mixed spices, ocimum Basillicum and ocimum grattissium (curry and scent leaves) is of interest in food spicing or seasoning.

1.3    AIMS OF THE STUDY

        To produce mixed spices from curry leaf and scent leaf (nchuanwu) in a different ratio by ranging from (curry leaf) and (scent leaf) as: (100:0 sample A), (90:10, sample B), (80:20 sample C), (70:30 sample D), (60:40 sample E), (50:50 sample F), (0:100 samples G) (10:90 sample H), (20:80 sample), (30:70 sample J), (40:60 sample K).

1.4    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

-       To Produce a mixed spices of curry leaves and scent leaves.

-       To determined the preference of the mixed spices produced.

-       To determined the basic characteristics properties of the mixed spices.

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