PRODUCTION OF CASSAVA OF STARCH FROM CASSAVA

(Chemical Engineering)

PRODUCTION OF CASSAVA OF STARCH FROM CASSAVA

ABSTRACT

The fresh cassava were sources from Idodo in Nkanu Local Government of Enugu state. The weight of the cassava tuber were taken to be 31.50kg. After peeling and washing, it was divided into two equal parts which was 21.13kg for production of sample A and sample B respectively (edible and textile starch) which weighed 13.1kg.

During this process, the temperature were obtained at 700c (617.4R). And the other properties of the cassava samples were carried out, such as moisture content of the fresh cassava 59.82% (Sample A), Textile starch 52.02% (Sample B) and edible starch (Sample C). the average mean percent of ash content of Sample A, edible starch was 2.6% while that of (Sample B, fresh crush cassava was 2.1%.

Also determination of cyanide content of fresh cassava 14.13ml. Textile 5.0ml and edible starch 4.48ml.

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

1.0              Introduction

1.1       Scope and objective

CHAPTER TWO

2.1              History of cassava

2.2              Environmental condition for cassava growth

2.3              Cultural method of cultivation/harvesting

2.4              Harvesting/storage

2.5              Nutritive composition of cassava

2.6              Method of cassava processing

2.7              Toxicity of cassava processing and it’s material

2.8              Starch chemistry

2.9               Physical properties of starch

2.9.1        Chemical properties of starch

2.9.2        Starch processing

2.9.3        Hydrolysis of local starch

CHAPTER THREE

3.0       Production of starch from cassava (textile starch)

3.1              Production of starch from cassava (edible starch)

3.2              Drying process

3.2.1        Determination of ash content

3.2.2        Determination of moisture content of fresh cassava,

textile and edible starch

3.2.3        Determination of cyanide content of fresh crushed

cassava textile and edible starch

3.3.4        Preparation of 5% of Na0H solution

3.3.4.1              Tytration experiment with AgN03 (Silver Nitrate)

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0              Result and Discussion

4.1       Table ash content

4.2.1        Determination of moisture content sample A

4.2.2        Sample b (textile starch)

4.2.3        Sample C Edible starch

4.3.1        Determination of cyanide content sample A

4.3.2        Edible starch (sample B)

4.3.3        Textile starch (sample C)

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0              Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1       Conclusion

5.2              Recommendation

Appendix A

Appendix b

Appendix C

Appendix d

Graps

References     

CHAPTER ONE

1.0              INTRODUCTION

Cassava was known to the world before the discovery of America.  The Portuguese settlers found the native Indian’s in Brazil growing the cassava plant and Pierre Marty wrote in 1490 that the poisonous roots of a “Yucca” were used in the preparation of bread.  Cassava were introduced to the Westerner const of Africa in the sixteenth centuries while the word topioca derived from tapioca.  The  tipi Indian’s name the liquid which is extracted from the tubers and made into pellets called tipicoet.  The edible tubers, which serves as food in many tropical countries as well as source of starch, it also serves as principal food for workers in minning and industrial centers in most countries too.

Cassava is a single species, manihot esculent crante (synonymous with mainhot utilissmapolhe) it is a tuberous dicotyledous plant, belonging to the botanical family of Euphorbiacca, and like most other members of that family.  The cassava plant contain latifiers and produces latex.  The cassava tuber contains and mainly water and carbohydrate with waters having a greater proportion and a small significant amount of cyanogenic glucoside (prussic acid) of all the constituents of cassava tubers.  Two major factors limits its utilization.  In the form of the fresh (unprocessed) tuber.  The first is that the unprocessed tuber has relatively high amount of prussic acid, which is highly poisonous to human and animal when consumed.  The second factor is that fresh cassava tubers cannot be stored more than a few days after harvest.  The tuber begins to deteriorate rapidly as a result of enzymatic process in the presence of water contained in the tuber.

It is an important food crop in tropical countries such as Brazil, Nigeria, Indonesia and Thailand.  The roots of the cassava are rich in starch and are consumed as human food or animal feed.  Small amount of it’s root are  converted into industrial products.  Today Thailand are the world leaders of starch production from cassava.

 

 

TABLE 1

BELOW IS RECENT WORLD PRODUCTION OF CASSAVA NOT IN THE YEAR 2001.

Country

Volume (million)

Nigeria

33,854,000

Brazil

24,481,356

Thailand

18,283,000

Congo

15,959,000

Indonesia

15,800.00

Ghana

7,845,440

Tanzania

5,757,968

India

5,800,00

Mozambique

5,361,974

China

3,700,900

Others

175,617,389

SOURCE:       FAD STA, 2001

SCOPE AND OBJECTIVE

The objective of this project is based on the production of starch from cassava, using a manual instrument called greater to open all the tuber cell.  So that the starch granules are easily released and extracted through hydraulic press, or sieve (mesh).  However it has been observed that cassava flour produced through different process have different quanlities.

SCOPE

The following analysis were carried out cyanide content, production of Edible and textile starch, Ash content of edible and fresh crushed cassava, moisture content of fresh crushed cassava, textile starch and edible starch.  At the end of the work, the result of these analysis were shown.

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