(Chemical Engineering)



The flow nozzle was constructed based on the dimensions and specifications of the international standard organization (I.S.O) recommendation.

Throat diameter 42.5mm

Length converging nozzle 68mm

Thickness of nozzle 2mm

Diameter of major axis of ellipse 85mm

Diameter of minor axis of ellipse 56.6mm

Diameter of duct pipe 85mm

            The absence of this device (Nozzle) has imposed a very big problems to early scientist. This had existed due to the difficulties in measuring fluid flow in channel.

These scientist latter came out with different kinds of nozzle which facilitates measurement. They were convergent, divergent and divergent-convergent nozzle.

Other metering devices include venturi meter orifice meter, weir etc. each  of them has different structures and mode of operation.

The constructed electric is attached to an upstream pipe to give a substantial steady flow to the down stream pipe. Fouling and head loss should be minimized likewise eddies formation. Lastly, the same diameter of tube should be used to replace themanometric tube when it got broken. Likewise the fluid should be maintained.



1.0              INTRODUCTION                                                                

1.1       SCOPE OF THE PROJECT                                     


2.0              HISTORICAL REVIEW OF FLOW                                   

2.1       THEORY OF FLOW METER                                             

2.2              VENTURING METER                                                         

2.3              ORIFICE METER                                                                

2.4              FLOW NOZZLE                                                                   

2.5              TYPES OF FLOW NOZZLE                                               

2.6              CHARACTERISTICS OF FLOW NOZZLE                      

2.7              ADVANTAGES OF FLOW NOZZLE                   

2.8              DISADVANTAGES OF FLOW NOZZLE             


3.0              MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION                                   

3.1       CONSTRUCTION                                                    


4.0              DISCUSSION                                                                       

4.1       RECOMMENDATION                                                        

4.2              CONCLUSION                                                                    

4.3              REFERENCE                                                            

4.4              NOMENCLATURE                                                 


The aim of this project is to construct a flow nozzle capable of conveying fluid (liquid) from one point to the other. The parameter used depict the pressure change, the velocity and quantity of flow is also inclusive. The nozzle should be able to create a pressure drop in moving fluid and give the quanity of fluid that flow through for a given period of time. The nozzle should be capable of satisfying industrial requirement when placed in process plant for fluid supply.

The flow nozzle fabricated was based on the following prescriptions.

Throat diameter 42.5mm                                 42.5mm

Length of converging nozzle              68mm

The thickness of the nozzle                 2mm

Diameter of ellipse major axis             85mm

Diameter of ellipse minor axis                        56.6mm

Diameter of the duct (pipe0                85mm



1.0              INTRODUCTION

The study of fluid behaviour is very important in process  engineering. It constitutes the study of unit operation. The branch of engineering that deals with the study of fluid is called fluid machines. An understanding of fluids through pipe, pumps and all kind of process equipment and also for the study of heat flow and pressure change. The branches of fluid machines include fluid static and fluid dynamics fluid static treats fluids in the  equilibrium state of no shear streets while fluid dynamics deals with position  of fluid in motion relative to other part.

A fluid is a substance that foes not permanently resist distortion. An attempt to change the shape of a mass of fluid result inlayers of fluid scliding over one another until a new shape, shear stress exist, the magnitude of it depend on the viscosity of the fluid and rate of sliding but when final shape is reached, all shear stress will have disappeared.

The term flow means volume per unit time at specified temperature and pressure conditions.

It can be measured using positive displacement meter or rate meter. The term fluid is a generalized name given to liquid and gases. Fluid flow or is transported from one place to another by different means either by container gallon, cylinder, tank   the  related means to the topic at and now is transportation by pipe.

Pile consist of nozzles and ducts through which liquid flow. A nozzle is a mechanism which kinetic energy of fluid is converted and increased in an adiabatic process.

T his process accompanies decrease in pressure and change in flow area of the fluid.

The variation in shape and diameter of different part of nozzle effect the flow of fluid nozzle comes in different types, we have divergent nozzles, convergent nozzles and divergent-convergent nozzles.


The rate of flow of fluid in pipe is measured by devices which facilitates the ascertainment of the volume of fluid flowing in a unit time. These devices are collective called flow meter or rate meters.

Flow meters are of different types such as venturi-meter, flow nozzle, orifice meter, rofa meter and weirs these devices are used as choice. All the devices mentioned above facilitates movement of fluid on specified direction, speed and size.


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